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fearbarli CollEge Itfararg 





(ClUS 01 l89>) 




H.E. Ts'KN Ch'un Hsuan, 
T of Shansi 1901-1902, and Two of his Sons. 


» I 


• ♦ 

■• . \ 



Fire and Sword in Shansi 

The Story of the Martyrdom of 
Foreigners and Chinese Christians 


E. H. Edwards 

M3., C.M.(EDfN.) 
For Twenty Years Medical Missionary in China 

With Introductory Note by 
Alexander Maclaren, D.D., Litt.D. 


And Appreciation by 
F. B. Meyer 

New Edition 
With Additional Chapter 

Edinburgh and London 
Oliphant Anderson & Ferrier 


CX ivV"D,3'/- * 









5n Xoviitfl Aemori? 
of tbe 

AartstB of Sbanat 

Be thou faithful unto death, and I 
will give thee a crown of life.** 




THE Story of Christian heroism told in the 
following pages finds a worthy narrator 
in Dr. Edwards, whose self-tepression may make 
a word of introduction from me suitable. Eh*. 
Edwards has been a medical missionary in China 
for twenty years, eighteen of which were spent in 
Shansi, in which province he has carried on, in 
conjunction with his relatives, Mr. and Mrs. Pigott, 
a Mission the cost of which was largely borne by 
themselves. It is only the " accident " of his 
having been on furlough at the time of the 
massacres that saved him from sharing the fate 
of the other members of that Mission ; and he is 
now on the eve of returning, with his wife, to the 
city in which he arid they laboured, and they died, 
for Christ. He has therefore given guarantees 
of his disinterested zeal, which may well ensure 
him an audience for his narrative. 

Dr. Edwards returned to China immediately on 
the news of the massacres reaching England, and 
waited for some months for an opportunity to re- 
enter Shansi, during which time he was able to 

6 Introductory Note 

open communications with the scattered survivors 
among the Chinese Christians, and came into 
possession of many of the blood-stained letters 
and diaries which he has used in this book. For 
part of that time he acted as interpreter to the 
German forces, and at the close of it was one of 
the first party of missionaries to return to the 
scene of his labours, hallowed now by the blood 
of saints. He was there alone for several months, 
till reinforcements arrived. He had therefore un- 
equalled opportunities of gathering facts, and his 
narrative includes many hitherto unpublished par- 
ticulars, obtained and verified on the spot. The 
terror and the greatness of the facts are enhanced 
by the quiet simplicity of the way of telling 

And the Ssbcts are such as the whole Christian 
Church should be thankful for, even more than 
sorrowful. "The noble army of martyrs predse 
Thee," and it is for martyrdom that their praise 
swells highest and most joyful. The last recruits 
of that army, '^ these from Uie land of Sinim," have 
long since joined their new notes with the others ; 
and we do not well if we only lament the loss of 
valuable lives, or question the prudence of the 
sacrifice. Now that time has somewhat healed 
wounds, we should feel, even while we mourn, that 

"Nothing is here for tears, nothing to wail, 
. . . nothing but &ir and good, 
And what may quiet us in a death so noble." 

The page which these martyrdoms has added to 

Introductory Note 7 

tbe Book of Mart3rrs is of a piece with all the pre- 
ceding pages^ — the same Christ-sustained heroism 
displayed t^ tender women, mothers^ maidens, and 
children; the- same meek forgiveness, the same 
unalterable constancy. Stephen need not be 
ashamed of his last successors* Nor were the 
Chinese convertd a whit behind in their devotion. 
The cyrdcal belittlers c^ Missions, both of the 
missionaries and the ** rice .Christians/' as they call 
the converts, would be silenced, if they have any 
fairness or sense of shame, by the unshrinking 
fidelity of these dimly-seeing but deeply4oving 
Chinese Christians. They could not argue for 
Him, but they could and did die for Him. The 
man is not to be envied who can read, without a 
lump in his throat, the story told on pages 1 85—6 of 
the massacre of a whole family, husband and wife, 
with his mother and sister, who joined in singing 
a hymn, " He leadeth me," while they were being 
carted to their deaths, and were slain one by one — 
first the man, then his mother, next his sister, and, 
last of all, the young wife. There is a story of a 
mother looking on at the martyrdom of her sons 
in the Maccabean times which is immortal, and 
that Chinese household's fate and constancy is a 
worthy companion to it. 

The Church at home has not sufficiently realised 
the sad, glorious story told in the succeeding 
pages, and some of us have wondered and sorrowed 
that so little impression has been produced by it. 
It is no good sign of the state of the Churches ; 
and this volume, it is hoped, will do something 

8 Introductory Note 

to bring the facts home to Christian hearts. 
These English men and women, these Chinese 
converts, gladly died for their Lord. Surely their 
example will point the sharp arrow of questioning 
to some of us, whether we really believe that a 
Christian life is a daily dying, and that, whether 
martyrs or not, we are scarcely Christians, unless 
we continually yield life, self, and all to Jesus Christ 



THIS is another chapter in the Book of 
Martyrs. It should be read and pondered 
widely, and especially by those of our young men 
and women who desire to live "the dedicated 
life." It proves that the Faith of our 

Fathers is living yet; that it is as vigorous and 
quickening as in the early Christian centuries; 
that its power of inspiring supreme acts of self- 
sacrifice is undiminished ; that the Living Christ 
< still walks the fire with His chosen witnesses, and 
enables them to make a good confession. In these 
days of contrary winds and tides, when the funda- 
mentals of our holy religion are being assailed, it 
is reassuring and inspiring to find that the simplest 
statements of the Gospel are enough, through the 
grace of the Divine Teacher, to produce a faith 
that knows no doubt, a love that cherishes no hate, 
and a hope that triumphs over death. The 

closing paragraphs are full of sorrow and anxiety. 
There is no room for regret, as we review the 
glorious chapters already written ; but we ask, with 
some concern, where are the materials out of which 


lo Appreciation 

chapters as heroic can be compiled? Where are 
those who will be baptized for the dead ? Where 
are the candidates who will step forward to fill the 
places now vacant? A clarion voice must ring 
through our churches to startle the new generations 
out of the letliargy which this materialistic age 
produces. Ease, wealth, and power have special 
fascinations for us all; but the question is, how 
best to fall in line with the forward movement of 
the Kingdom of God, and how to begin in this life 
the work which is to engage us in the next; so 
that our existence may be homogeneous — a per- 
fected ideal. There can be but one answer. 
We must consecrate our existence to helping souls 
to emancipate themselves from superstition and 
depravity, and receive the jfpirit of Adoption, 
This is a work for which the loftiest endowments 
are not too great. But^how can it be done so well 
as by the Gospel of Christ ? And what nature on 
earth will better repay our efforts than the Chinese, 
which, as the narratives of this book prove, is 
capable of the highest attainments in the Divine 
Life? This work will live for ever, and to this the 
Son of God is calling. 


OF the Boxer movement in general little 
remains to be said after the exhaustive 
work on tlie subject, China in Convulsion^ by 
Dr. Arthur H. Smith ; but his account necessarily 
contains only the earliest reports concerning the 
massacre in Shansi. 

Mr. Marshall Broomhall's Martyred Mission- 
aries and Last Letters relate chiefly to the 
sufferings of the missionaries of the China Inland 

The following narrative is intended mainly to 

be a memorial of those who were connected with 

the late Shou Y ang Mission. Several partial 

accounts of ^their martyrdom have already been 

published ; but careful inquiries having been 

made during a four months' residence at T'ai 

Yuan Fu, it is now possible to give, what I believe 

to be, the true version of their sufTerings. The 

fact that many of the places of martyrdom are 


1 2 Preface 

familiar to me, and that most of the martyrs were 
my personal friends, may be regarded as a further 
qualification for this sad task. 

^The spread of Boxerism throughout the entire 
province is traced from the advent of the Governor 
Yii Hsien in 4^2? ^^ ^^ latest massacre in 
Sentsmber. / 

The history of subsequent events in Shansi 
is brought up to date, special reference being 
made to the circumstances which led to the return 
of the Protestant missionaries to the province on 
the invitation of the then Governor Ts'en Ch'un 
Hsiian ; the establishment of the College of 
Western Learning ; and the settlement of the 
Indemnity question. 

In Chapter V. will be found, in addition to 
memorial sketches of all those connected with 
the Shou Yang Mission, a striking address 
delivered by the late Rev. Geo. B. Farthing 
shortly before his martyrdom, and which may 
be regarded as his last message; together with 
several letters and diaries hitherto unpublished in 

Most of the illustrations are from photographs 
taken on my return to Shansi in 1901, and form 

Preface 1 3 

a pictorial record of the memorial services for 
the martyrs. 

The result of my work is offered as a loving 
tribute to the memory of all the martyrs of 
^hansi, and an effort to rouse interest in Mission 
work throughout China. 

To the editors of Chincis Millions and All 
Nations I am indebted for blocks of maps, and 
of photographs of some of the martyrs; and to 
Miss Jessie H. Denholm Young for kind help 
in the revision of proofa 



" The noble army of Martyrs praise Thee " 

Thb (late) Srou Yang Mission 

Mr. Thomas Wellesley Pigott, 

B.A. Dub. 
Mrs. E. Jessie Pigott. 
William Wellesley Pigott. 
Mr. George W. Stokes. 
Mrs. Stokes. 
Mr. James Simpson. 

Mrs. Simpson. 

Miss Edith Anna Coombs. 

Dr. Arnold £. Lovitt. 

Mrs. Lovitt. 

John Lovitt. 

Miss Emily Duval. 

Mr. John Robinson, B. A. Ix>nd 

Mr. Alexander Hoddle. 

American Board Mission 

Mr. E. R. Atwater. 
Mrs. Atwater. 
Ernestine Atwater. 
Mary Atwater. 
Bertha Atwater. 
Celia Atwater. 
Mr. C. W. Price. 
Mrs. Price. 

Florence Price. 
Mr. D. H. Clapp. 
Mrs. Clapp. 
Mr. F. W. Davis. 
Mr. G. L. Williams. 
Miss Rowena Bird. 
Miss Louisa Partridge. 

English Baptist 

Mr. George B. Farthing. 

Mrs. Farthing. 

Ruth Farthing. 

Guy Farthing. 

Betty Farthing. 

Mr. Herbert Dixon. 

Mrs. Dixon. 

Mr. W. A. M'Cnnrach. 

Missionary Socirtv 

Mrs. M'Currach. 

Mr. T. J. Underwood. 

Mrs. Underwood. 

Mr. F. S. Whitehouse. 

Mrs. Whitehouse. 

Mr. S. W. Ennals, 

Miss B. C. Renaut. 

Miss £. M. Stewart 

The Martyrs of Shana 


The British and Foreign Biblb Socimr 

Mr. W. T. Beynofi. 
Mrs. Beynon. 
Daisy Bqmon. 

Kenneth Beynon. 
Norman Beynon. 

Thb China Inland Mission 

Miss Emily Whitdinrch. 

Mr. Duncan Kay. 

Mrs. Kfiy. 

Jennie Kay. 

Mr. Stewart M'Kie. 

Mrs. M'Kie. 

Alice M'Kie. 

Baby M'Kie. 

Miss, Jane Stevens. 

Mrs. Margaret Cooper. 

Brainerd Cooper. 

Mr. Charles S. FAnson. 

Mrs. f Anson. 

Dora FAnson. 

Arthur FAnson. 

Eva FAnson. 

Mi^ Edith Dobson. 

Mi^ Edith Searell. 

Mr. William 6. Peat. 

Mrs, Peat 

Margaretta Peat 

Mary Peat. 

M|bs Maria Aspden. 

Mr. Geoi^ M'ConnelL 

Mrs. M*Connell. 

Kenneth M'Connell. 

Mr. Anton P. Lundgren. 

Mis. Loodgren. 

Miss Hattie Rice. 

Dr.* William Millar Wilson. 

Mrs, Wilson. 

Alexander Wilson. 

Miss Mildred Clarke. 
Miss F. Edith Nathan. 
Miss Mary R. Nathan. 
Miss Mary K Huston. 
Miss Maigaret E. Smith. 
Mr. John Young. 
Mfs. Young. 
Mr. David Banatt 
M». Glover. 
Faith Glover. 
Mr. Alfred Woodroofe. 
Miss Eliza M. Heaysman. 
Miss Emma G. Hum. 
Miss Elizabeth Burton. 
Miss Annie Eldred. 
Miss S. Annie King. 
Mr. Peter A. Ogreo. 
Mary Lutley. 
Edi|h Lutley. 
Jessie Saunders. 
Isabel Saunders. 
Mr. Nathaniel Carleson. 
Miss Mina Hedlund. 
Mr. Sven A. Persson. 
Mrs. Persson. 
Mr. Gustaf E. Karlberg. 
Mr. Oscar A. Larsson. 
Miss Anna Johannsen. 
Miss Jennie Lundell. 
Miss Justina EngvalL 
Mr. Ernest Petterson. 



The Martyrs of Shan» 

Thb Swedish Mongolian Mission 

Mr. Hellebexg. i One child. 

Mrs. Helleberg. | Mr. Wahlstedt. 

The Christian and Missionary Alliance 

Mr. Emil Olssen. 
Mrs. Olssen. 
Three children. 
Mr. Noren. 
Mrs. Noren. 
Two children. 
Mr. Bingmark. 
Mrs. Bingmark. 
Two children. 
Mr. Blomberg. 
Mrs. Blomberg. 
One child. 
Miss £. Erickson. 
Mr. E. Anderson. 
Mrs. Anderson. 

Three children. 

Mr. O. Forsberg. 

Mrs. Forsberg. 

One child. 

Mr. C. L. Lundberg. 

Mrs. Lundberg. 

Two children. 

Mr. M. Nystrom. 

Mrs. Njrstrom. 

One child. 

Miss A. Gosta&on. 

Miss C. Hall. 

Mr. A. E. Palm. 

Miss K. Om (unconnected). 

The Scandinavian Alliance Mongolian Mission 

Mr. D. Sternberg. 
Miss H. Lund. 
Mr. S. Suber. 

Miss Clara Anderson. 
Miss Hilda Anderson, 


§oti skati mlp$ away Mmr$ Uwr fnm thtir 9§9$ ** 

*^T}ie work was donij thi shadow on the dial 
showed the houvy and the workman was called 
away to his rest!^ 


Martyred at T'ai Yuan Fii, 

9M July 1900. 


Introductory Note by Dr. Alexander Maclarbn 

Appreciation by F. B. Meyer 


List of the Martyrs of Shansi 

List of Illustrations 









The Province of Shansi: The Scene of the 

Massacre ....•• 33 

The Spread of Boxerism in Shansi • • • 48 

After the Massacres . . . t iii 

Persecutions of the Native Church . 

Memorials and Last Letters . 


Present Needs and Future Prospbcfs 


Seven Years Later 
Appendix . 





. 317 
. 326 

♦ 330 






J H.E. Ts'bn Ch'un Hstf an . . . Frontispiece 

/ ViBw OF Tai YOan Fu from the Central Tower . 29 

"The Central Tower of Tai Yuan Fu , • 3* 

<^A Road through the Loess 

^'Crossing a River in Flood 

/Sketch Map of Shansi ..... 4S 

'Entrance to Hospital Compound, T'ai YOan Fu 1 

J Chapel on Hospital Compound, T'ai YUan Fu / 

^ House in which the Missionaries were arrested i 

, J. 72 

Entrance to the Governor's YXmen . . J 

-i Entrance to the Cavb House in the Village of 

Peh Liang Shan . • . •1-82 

^Courtyard of Cave House 
V Passing over the Loess Mountains . 
yA Temple overlooking the T'ai Yuan Plain 
^Certificate of Protection • . . .no 

'SnftN Tun Ho . . . . . .120 

4 Sketch Map showing Route from Peking to T'ai 

Yuan Fu • . . . . .126 

•</ First Party op Protestant Missionaries to enter 
Shansi after the Massacre 

^OuR Escort in Shansi .... 
i Meeting of Protestant Missionaries and Officials 

of Shansi • • . • . .140 

1 Memorial Service, T'ai Y^an Fu . ^ 
.Procession leaving the Prefect's YXmen j-. . 146 

Procession passing through the Streets J 


} * 


List of Illustrationt 19 




>/ Pavilion and Graves . . . I ' 

; ) • ■ 



y Arrival of Procession at Cbmbtbry 
V Sbrvicb at the Cbmbtbry 
/ Rbcbption of Mournbrs by thb Rbsidbnt Magis- 

tratb ••■••• 

/ Mournbrs gathbrbd round thb Sitb of Martyr- 

DOM •••••■ 

^HsiN Chou from thb SOTrrH-BAST 

"^HsiN Chou. Memorial Sbrvicb on the Sm or ^ i88 
THE Massacre . 

</ Tai YOan Fu Girls' School, 1898 . . •199 

^ Mission House, Hospital Compound, Tai Ytf an Fu 1 

/Ruins of abovb ...../ 

^^Roup OF Shansi Missionaries, taken at Tai Y^an 

Fu, 1898 ...... BIB 

^-^Mr. John Robinson, B.A. (Lond.), Miss Duyal, 

Miss Coombs, Miss Stewart 

^Dr. and Mrs. Lovitt . . • .236 

vMr. T. W. Pigott, Mrs. Pigott 

^Wellbsley W. Pigott, Mr. Alexander Hoddle 

VWano Tbn Ren and his Bridb • . . -i 

/Courtyard of a Buddhist Temple nbar Shou Yang J 

^Mr. Geo. W. Stokes, Mbb. Stokes -^ 

/Mr. James Simpson, Mrs. Simpson / ' ' ' ^ 

^IN thb Hospital Compound, Tai YOan Fu . .266 

/The Old Mission House, Shou Yang Hsien . 1 

y 282 
y Starting for a Picnic, Shou Yang Hsien . J 

/Shou Yang Hsibn from the North . • 298 

/Dr. Lovitt and his Hospital Assistants . • 312 


} 936 


DURING the summer of 1900, while the eyes 
of the civilised world were turned towards 
Peking anxiously awaiting news of the beleaguered 
Legations, far away in the province of Shansi 
helpless men, women, and children — European and 
American — were being done to death. The siege 
of the Legations lasted from 20th June to 14th 
August ; and as during that time Uiey were almost 
completely cut off from communication with the 
outside world, their probable fate was the all- 
absorbing topic. The reports that the besieged 
had been massacred were believed; biographical 
notices of the more prominent among them were 
written, and memorial services arranged for. The 
joy with which the news of the relief was received 
was commensurate with the previous suspense, and 
the excitement was so great that contemporaneous 
events in other parts of China were almost over- 
looked except by those immediately interested. 

Even now there are but few who realise thiat in 
the one province of Shansi alone one hundred and 


^. Introduction 2 1 


fifly-nine foreigners were massacred — the majority 
of them at the time the Legations were besi^^ed, 
but quite a number even after the Allies had 
taken possession of Peking. The one man 
responsible for those atrocities was the Manchu 
Governor Yii Hsien. When he was appointed 
to that post his character was well known to the 
Ambassadors; but they, having ''protested" because 
of his anti - foreign proclivities, evidently con- 
sidered that all had been done that was necessary 
to protect the missionaries in that province from 
the rage of the man who has not been inaptly 
described as the " Chinese Nero." 

After the cessation of hostilities the new 
English Ambassador did not think it advisable 
that there should be a judicial inquiry into the 
massacre of some one hundred British subjects ! 
" The missionary societies have placed their offering 
upon the altar, and it has been acc^)ted. Let 
them renew their offering," he said. Such might 
have been — and were — the views expressed by 
representatives of some missionary societies ; but 
was it not the duty of the Minister of a Power 
whose subjects had been massacred in defiance of 
treaties made, to insist that inquiry should be held 
and the really guilty punished? True — ^some 
officials had by Imperial decree been sentenced 
to different degrees of punishment, but no proof 

22 Introduction 

whatever was forthcoming that such sentences had 
been carried out 

Even with regard to Yii Hsien himself, it is 
not certain that he was executed — at least half a 
dozen stories having been already published as to 
the manner of his death. Another official whose 
hands were red with the blood of many Chinese 
Christians, and who was responsible for the death 
of seven foreigners, was sentenced to perpetual 
banishment by an Imperial decree of February 
1901 ; but when the officials of T'ai YUan Fu 
applied to the Court at Hsi An Fu for confirma- 
tion before carrying it out, they were told they 
need take no notice of such decree, as it was only 
meant for Peking I That banished (1) official was 
still in office in September 1 901, and in November 
of the same year, though he had been removed 
from office, the sentence had not been carried out. 

That it has long been the practice of the 
Chinese Government to reinstate in office 
Mandarins degraded for encouraging anti-foreign 
riots, or for their responsibility in the case of the 
massacre of foreigners, is well known; and a 
melancholy interest now attaches to the following 
letter written by the late Mr. T. W. Pigott as far 
back as 1895 : — 

"The cause ot riots and murders, including 
heartl«=*ss massacres, in China is so serious and 

Intfodttction 33 

threatening, so full of future danger, and withal so 
plainly revealed in the judgment of a large number 
of competent judges, that the time is now more 
than ripe for laying the facts before the public. 

" Let us review them briefly. 

''The first which occurred after the 3fears of 
sectiHty following the burning of the Summer 
Palace was the Yang Chou riot in .1 868, where the 
Rev. J. H. Taylor and colleagues barely escaped 
with their lives. This was quickly followed by 
the murder of the Rev. James Williamson of the 
London Kfission, in 1 869. Though there was no 
iSIute of evidence as to who the real rioters and 
mufderers were, yet none suffered No strong 
hand of English justice appeared to avenge an 
Englishman's blood, and the astonished Chinese 
learned how cheaply foreign Ifves might be 
tampered with, and how easy it was to check the 
ibreigher and to terrorise by deeds of violence, 
and yet secure retreat under cover of endless 
verbiage and profuse professions of friendly 

- "No long time sufficed to develop patriotic 
Chinamen capable of bringing their new discovery 
into eflicient practice. In 1870 we have the 
massacre of Tientsin, where twenty Europeans, 
thirteen of whom were defenceless ladies, were 
butchered through the collusion of the Taot'ai, 

24 Introduction' 

Prefect, and county magistrate. Justice and 
expediency alike demanded stern and speedy 
punishment of the guilty parties, as well as all 
possible amends on the part of the Chinese 
Government; but neither was effected. Instead, 
the chief ofScial offender was appointed Com- 
missioner to France as the be^er of a formal 
apology. The other two members of the local 
trio were sentenced to banishment to the province 
of Manchuria 1 — the Emperor's native home, and 
a pet province of the Empire. But even this 
genteel sentence was never carried out, and no 
restriction was put on them. For the twenty 
Europeans killed, twenty poor men were sentenced 
to be executed. How far these had any part in 
the riot it would be hard to say. The Russian 
Minister refused to allow the execution of four of 
them as satisfaction for the four Russians killed, 
not satisfied of their guilt. Dr. Williamson 
records that — 

" * The Government paid large monetary com- 
pensation to the families of the men who were^ 
executed, permitted them to be feasted during 
the preceding night, afterwards decapitated in 
grand robes said to be a present from the Govern- 
ment, and buried with honours.' 

"In 1873 we have the murder of Mr. Margary 
by Brigadier-General Li. 

Introduction 25 

^ Wells Williams says of this sad tragedy that — 

^* ' The weight of evidence obtained at Yunnan 
Fu went to prove that the repulse of the British 
party was countenanced, if not planned, by the 
Governor-General, and carried into effect with the 
cognisance of Brigadier LL' 

" In 1 884 Admiral P6ng was appointed Imperial 
Commissioner to Canton to co-operate with the 
Viceroy against the French forces. Immediately 
upon his advent came reports that Christianity 
was to be suppressed. He issued a proclamation, 
in which he said that China would not hold herself 
responsible for the destruction of foreign-owned 
property by popular violence. This was at once 
followed by such an outbreak as destroyed 
eighteen Protestant stations and almost the entire 
number of Roman Catholic ones. The same 
official followed up this by a memorial to the 
Throne, in which he spoke of Mission chapels as 
Heavenly LonTs Devil HallSy and did not hesitate 
to recommend their destruction and the massacre 
of the missionaries. This official enjoyed high 
favour at Peking up to the day of his death. 

" In 1886 there were riots in Kiangsi and 
Szechuan, evidence pointing suspiciously to the 
authorities as their authors. 

" A German Consul who was sent to investigate 
the riots of Shantung during 1886 to 1890, dis- 

i6 Introduction 

covered the instigator to be none other than a 
member of the Government 

''The serious riots and murders in Central 
China in 1 89 1 were found to be carried on under 
the leadership of Chou Han, a man of Taot'ai 
rank. Copies of documents before me abundantly 
prove that the Governor of Huitan riot only 
approved^ but abetted his de^gn< In a despatch 
to the Governor of Hupeh this Chou Han 
demanded the release of the man who had been 
caught by foreigners in the act of inciting the 
people to riot and murder at Hankow and 
Wuchang, and at their request arrested by the 
Wuchang authorities; threatening to appeal to 
the Throne if his demand was not complied with. 
T^ man was liberated. 

"A resident at Wuchang, writing of these 
times, says — 

" * I never believed that the riots were an ofTicial 
movement till I saw how they were put down in 
our city. . . . We felt we were living on the 
mouth of a volcano, and many a sleepless night 
did I pass, waiting for those rioters whom we 
were warned on all hands to expect. But just as 
it seemed as if the outbreak could not be staved 
off another day, there came a great change. . . . 
The people looked pleasant and agreeable again, 
the very dogs seemed friendly. I learned that 

Introduction 27 

on the previous evening the Viceroy had 
summoned the Mandarins to his y&men, and that 
they had been rushing about all the night in 

** * Next I was told of a remarkable interview 
which the British Consul and the commander of 
the Archer had had with the Viceroy in the 
afternoon. They had told him plainly that the 
firing of a single missionary establishment would 
be the sig^nal for instant retaliation on the part of 
the war vessels in the river. His Excellency, it is 
said, manifested great incredulity, and pointed 
out that such an unwarrantable proceeding would 
be quite contrary to international law. However, 
he was fortunately convinced that they were in 
earnest ; so he called his subordinates, issued his 
instructions, and all was changed in a night. 
From that time not only has there been no more 
trouble threatened and no more talk of uncontrolled 
soldiers and people, but there is hardly a hostile 
rumour even to be heard. This was what con- 
vinced me that the whole movement was under 
official control all the time/ 

" At Ichang the Brigadier-General and district 

magistrate superintended the riot in 1891 in 

person. The Shanghai Daily News said — 

Officials and soldiers escorted the Sisters. . . , 

As soon as the bank of the river was reached the 

28 Introduction 

Sisters were thrown in headlong over It by the 
very soldiers who aided in their protection (?) so 

" At Sungpu, where two Swedish missionaries 
were murdered in 1893, beyond all possibility of 
a doubt with official connivance, the magistrates 
exposed the bodies naked, and mutilated with 
nameless mutilations, on the street for four days. 
The murderers have never been punished; but, 
instead, servants and those who in any way 
befriended the victims have been tortured most 
unmercifully, some done to death, others driven 
insane, while others had to flee the country, for- 
feiting all their possessions. 

" The same year in Manchuria Dr. Greig was 
barbarously assaulted by some of the bodyguard 
of Taot'ai General Yeh of Kirin, and tortured all 
but to death. 

" The Szechuan riots of the summer were, 
according to the most trustworthy accounts, 
planned and carried out by the Viceroy and his 
officials, who, when entreated for protection, issued 
proclamations urging on the rioters. These very 
officials are now appointed on a Commission to 
investigate the cause of the riots. Naturally, the 
strange conduct of the British Minister in accept- 
ing such men as Commissioners has aroused the 
indignation of all foreign residents in China, who, 






as well by public meetings as by the local press, 
denounce the Commission as a dangerous farce. 
It seems incredible that our British representatives 
could be gulled by such fabricated explanations 
and excuses as the Chinese Government offer, in 
face of the conclusive and overwhelming evidence 
as to the real cause of the outrages. 

^ There has been of late years almost a 
constant succession of outrages, some more and 
some less serious, but each and all part of the 
same movement, having its origin and source Jn 
the Chinese Government Twelve months ago 
Mr. Wylie was murdered in Manchuria by the 
same General's troops that committed the mur- 
derous outrage on Dr. Greig in 189 1. A few 
weeks after that murder we find the following 
paragraph in the local press : — 

" * The Kirin General whose bodyguard attacked 
Dr. Greig some time ago, and whose soldiers have 
given considerable trouble by attacking chapels 
and killing Mr. Wylie and lady missionaries, 
has been promoted to the very important post 
of Tartar General in the province of Fu Kien.' 

'*And now we have the harrowing details 
of the almost unparalleled tragedy of Ku Cheng 
in that province. Along with this news comes 
China's expression of horror at the revolting 
crime, and her ready excuse and explanation, 

30 Jntrpduction 

as usual thought out and prepared beforehand. 
But the veil is too thin. Shedding of blood is 
not a principle of vegetarianism in China any 
more than elsewhere. Does not my quotation 
from that local press furnish the clue to the real 
culprit? How vain to accept China's protesta- 
tions of horror and verbose promises to bring the 
peipetrators of the shameless crime to justice, 
while we see her, publicly and barefacedly, 
countenance the last deed of blood by rewarding 
it with high promotion ! Until guilt is brought 
home, not to poor simpletons of the people, who as 
likely as not have no part in it, but to the high 
officials and the central Government, who seem to 
be the true instigators, we shall, I fear, wear ever- 
lasting mourning for our murdered sons and 
daughters in China." 

His words proved, unfortunately, only too true, 
and it appears as if this sad chapter was not yet 
completed ; for, while we mourn his loss as well 
as that of many others, the news reaches us that 
two more missionaries have been murdered, and 
the guilty official so far unpunished 

At the same time we should like to place 
beside the foregoing the following extract from 
a letter written by Mr. Pigott in 1 896, when the 
news of the Armenian massacres reached us in 
China :•*-* 

Introducdon 3 1 

" I look back on 1 879, when I first reached 
China, and am filled with thanksgiving and joy 
at the change God has wrought, and the more 
than hundredfold He has given for the labour 
and treasure expended in this province (Shansi). 
When I reached this province there ygifi niirt t>nr 
baptized C hristian her e^ and only two recently 
opened stations. Now there are many hundreds 
of converts, many of them earnest, faithful men, and 
a large number of stations where thousands are 
brought under Christian influence. How shall we 
look on the investment of our lives and labour 
here, even from the near standpoint of one hundred 
years hence ? I am, I can truly say, more grate- 
ful every day for the opportunity of serving 
Christ, and I believe this to be the only true and 
sober view of life's realities. The work i»essed 
home now will make all the difference. With 
Armenia before us, we dare not count too much 
on future years. How suddenly the work was 
arrested there, and the door shut against much 
hoped-for labour.'' 

By both precept and example he endeavoured 
to *' press home the work," and». only the week 
before he had to flee from his station, bapti^sed 
his last four converts. To the end he sought 
opportunities to preach to the people, land we may 
be sure that he never regretted the investment of 

32 Introduction 

his life and labour. May his example be a 
stimulus to not a few who have both means and 
leisure, to devote themselves and all they have to 
the cause of God in China. 

Since the above was written the important 
news has come to hand that, owing to the firm 
attitude assumed by the British Ambassador 
after the last massacre of missionaries, an Imperial 
decree was issued on 2nd November, pointing out 
that First Captain Liu (the military Mandarin at 
the city where the tragedy occurred), in refusing 
to shelter one of the missionaries, was doubly 
execrable, and ordering his summary execution ; 
the Brigadier Yen, who made no attempt to 
stop the mob, is sentenced to prison to await 
decapitation ; while other severe punishments are 
awarded " as a warning to all," among the culprits 
being a grandson of the Grand Councillor Wang 
Wen Shao. 

As confirming what has been written on this 
subject, the North China Heraldy in commenting 
on the issue of this edict, says : " It is not much 
credit to Sir Ernest Satow's predecessors at Peking, 
that, after a long series of massacres, it is only at 
this late date that such a decree has been forced 
from the Throne." 




The Province of Shansi — The Scene 

OF THE Massacre 

LONG before the eventful year 1900 the 
province of Shansi had attracted the 
attention of travellers, scientists, and capitalists 
by its..abQUQding_ mineral wealth, first brought to 
the knowledge of the worH"by the explorations 
of Baron 3^0a..Riclithofen. 

The name Shansi signifies " West of the Hills," 
the province being separated on the east from 
Chihli by high mountain ranges, while the Yellow 
River is the boundary which divides it from 
Shensi on the west and Honan on the south. 
On the north it is bounded by Mongolia. Its 
area is about equal to that of England and 
Wales, and the population is estimated to be 

The eastern and western portions are very 
mountainous, but between these are several rich, 
fertile plains. The largest of these is that of 


34 Fire and Sword in Shansi 

T'ai Yiian, at the northern end of which is the 
capital, T'ai Yiian Fu. This plain is 3000 feet 
above sea-level, and is some 2000 square miles 
in area. It is thickly populated, containing eleven 
cities besides the capital, and many hundreds of 
walled villages and market-towns. On the south 
the plain is bounded by the Ho Shan range, 
crossing which by the Ling Shih Pass we get a 
view of the large Ping Yang Fu plain. One of the 
mountain peaks west of this plain is pointed out 
as the " Ararat " of China, and is commonly called 
Ren Tsu Shan (Mountain of the Ancestors of 
Man) ; and the story is told that, when the whole 
race was destroyed by a flood, two persons saved 
their lives by jumping on the backs of two great 
lions, and were carried by them to the topmost 
ledge of the mountain, and thus saved from the 
general destruction. These two afterwards became 
the parents of the whole human race. On the top 
of the mountain is a very old temple, erected 
not to Ren Tsu, as commonly reported, but to 
Wen Tsu, the Ancestor of Literature. The 
most noted and best known of the mountains of 
this province is Wu Tai Shan (the Five Peaks), 
the sacred Buddhist retreat, situated about 80 
miles north of T'ai Yiian Fu ; and the presence of 
a living Buddha attracts thousands of Mongols 
from the north to adore him. 

A large part of Shansi is covered by the 
peculiar loess formation, a brownish - coloured 
earth, extremely porous, and, when dug, easily 
powdered between the fingers. One of the most 

The Province of Shansi 35 

striking as well as important phenomena of this 
formation is the perpendicular splitting of its 
mass into sudden and multitudinous clefts that 
cut up the country in every direction, and render 
observation as well as travel often exceedingly 
difficult. The cliffs vary from cracks measured 
by inches to cafions half a mile wide and hundreds 
of feet deep. The loess exhibits, too, a terrace 
formation, rendering its surface not only habitable, 
but highly convenient for agricultural purposes. 

The extreme ease with which loess is cut away 
tends at times to seriously embarrass traffic. 
Dust made by the cart wheels on a highway 
is taken up by strong winds during the dry 
season and blown over the surrounding lands. 
This action, continued for centuries, and assisted 
by occasional deluges of rain, which find a ready 
channel in the road bed, has hollowed the country 
routes into depressions of often 50 or 100 feet, 
where the passenger may ride for miles without 
obtaining a glimpse of the surrounding scenery. 

The rivers of Shansi are all very small. The 
northern part of the province is drained by those 
ending at Tientsin, while the Fen River, about 
300 miles long, drains the central section and 
then falls into the Yellow River. 

Many wild animals are met with in the 
mountain recesses, such as the deer, leopard, 
and bear; but the wolf is the most numerous 
and dangerous, because, when hard pressed for 
food, it will venture out into the plain and carry 
off little children found playing near the villages. 

36 Fire and Sword in Shansi 

Not a few patients have been brought to the 
Mission hospitals suffering from severe wolf-bites ; 
and quite a number of people are met with dis- 
figured, as the result of such injuries. 

The great roads from Peking to the south-west 
and west of the empire pass through the chief 
towns of this province. Wells Williams says 
that, "when new they equalled in engineering 
and construction anything of the kind ever built 
by the Romans." At the present time they are 
little more than time-worn tracks ; in some places 
passing through rocky gorges and over difficult 
passes, and then creeping along a ledge of loess 
with a drop of several hundred feet on the outer 
side. In the rainy season many of the roads are 
impassable ; and on the plains in the summer it 
is not at all an unusual thing for the niain road 
to be turned into an irrigation ditch. Everything 
has to give way to agriculture ; and the patient, 
uncomplaining carters will sometimes have to go 
miles round when their road is blocked by the 
local farmers. 

The telegr^h line which runs from Peking to 
the west and north-west, where it joins on .to .the 
Russian system, passes through this province, and 
telegraph offices for the transmission of messages 
have been opened at three towns — T'ai Yiian Fu, 
Ping^ Yao Hsien, and Hou Wa. A message 
between T'ai Yiian Fu and England generally 
took two days, and was charged for at the rate 
of $2.60 (a little more than 5s.) per word. In 
the autumn of 1 90 1 a post office was opened in 

The Province of Shansi 37 

T*ai Yiian Fu in connection with the Imperial 
Maritime Customs, and it was the intention to 
extend the service to several other towns in the 
province. . 

The climate of Shansi resembles to a great 
extent that of Elastem Canada. The winter is 
long and dry. About the middle of September 
frost at night may be expected, so that the 
farmers strain every nerve to get the crops in by 
that time. In January the thermometer will 
occasionally go below zero at night, but the bright 
sunshine during the short day helps considerably 
to tide one over the winter months. It is when 
the winds from the north blow that one realises 
what the cold is ; and when this is accompanied by 
a dust storm, which sometimes lasts three days, 
one's misery is complete I Frequently little or no 
snow falls in the winter, and the consequence is 
that the crops sown in the autumn may entirely 
fail. Summer succeeds winter without any inter- 
vening spring ; but it b comparatively short, and 
the thermometer in the shade seldom registers 
more than lOo"* F., though it occasionally goes 
up to 103** F. 

The rainfall is very uncertain, as some years 
there may be superabundance, while at another 
time there may be a scarcity for several years in 
succession, causing either terrible famine, as in 
1 877—79, or great distress, as during the last three 
years. When the rain fails there is very little 
water available for irrigation, 26id of course in the 
mountainous regions that method of watering the 

38 Fire and Sword in Shansi 

land would be out of the question. There are 
a few springs here and there, but most of the 
water for domestic purposes is obtained from 
wells, some of which are very deep. The Shansi 
people are experts in the art of well-digging, and 
if the supply of water needed is not great they 
will dig down 150 or even 200 feet without 
anything to support the walls. If the well has 
to be large, they excavate till they reach water, 
and then on a circular platform of willow planks 
build with bricks, what will be the bottom of the 
well, to the height of 10 or 12 feet This 
brick structure is made firm by binding poles 
both inside and out. Relays of workmen then 
dig out the earth from under the wooden platform, 
which, with the superimposed brick structure, 
sinks as the mud is removed. When a sufficient 
depth has been reached the poles are removed, 
the earth filled in outside the bricks, to which 
layer after layer is added till the top is reached. 

While the water supply is variable and un- 
certain, good fuel is fortunately in abundance, 
as the coal formation of Shansi is probably the 
largest in the world. Baron Richthofen estimates 
that the anthracite coal alone of Shansi amounts 
\o 630,000,000,000 tons, and that the coal area 
of the province is greater than the area of the 
State of Pennsylvania. 

The mines are but imperfectly worked, most of 
the shafts in the neighbourhood of T'ai Yiian Fu 
being horizontal. 

Occasionally perpendicular shafts have been 

The Province of Shan« 



















J M : »ooo »nvo o^ Ok u% "^i-tfS : 
,a* •••••••••• • 








•8'^"^S'ft8 8«J?R^"*8' 




d : : : t«*Qo m ««<•«** e*> •-• : ro 
« M M M «n 



• N W CO »0^0 »«*Q0 t«*vO «n ^ W 



• M M ^ xn^o >o vo «n fo w »^ 



" CO fo ^vo »«*oo ONOO t>.vo "% to 


January . 
March . 
April . . 
May . . , 
June . . 
July . . 
August . 
September , 
October . , 
November , 
December , 

~ o 



40 Fire and Sword in Shansi 

sunk, but these mines are now nearly all flooded, 
and await the introduction of foreign machinery 
before they can be worked again. A mining 
engineer, in reporting on the cp^lfield . of Tseh 
Xlhou^Uj, said, " Practically, all tlie coal is mined 
through shafts which vary from about 50 to a 
little over 300 feet A partial probable explana- 
tion of this circumstance may be, that the inferior 
character of the coal above the outcrops of the 
bed causes the miners to sink shafts away from 
the outcrops. Or it may be that the outcropping 
edges of the coal have been mined away during 
past ages, so that the Chinese are now discouraged 
in attempts to find the coal by tunnelling." 
Notwithstanding the primitive methods of mining, 
the coal in the neighbourhood of the mines is 
very cheap ; and in T'ai Yiian Fu it is delivered 
to the customer at the rate of ys, per ton. 

Iron, too, is found in abundance in more than 
one locality, and is extensively worked, the 
districts of l^ing Ting Chou and Lu An Fu being 
chiefly noted for that mineral Copper and 
sulphur are also found ; and in the extreme south 
there is a remarkable deposit of salt in a shallow 
lake 18 miles long and 3 broad. The salt is 
evaporated in the sun under Government direc- 
tion, and brings in a large revenue. It is said 
that salt has been obtained from that region for 
two thousand years. 

The soil is productive, and easily worked ; and 
in places where irrigation is possible two crops 
can be procured every year. The principal 

R Tai Yi an ¥v. 

A Ki«d [hrough tlie Loess. 

The Province of Shansi 41 

gradns are : wheat, Indian com, various kinds of 
millet, beans, barley, and oats. Rice can be 
grown in the neighbourhood of springs, but 
unfo rtunately that land is generally devoted to 
the cultjvatjp q dp cyium. A large variety of 
vegetables and fruits is g^own, such as potatoes, 
cabbages, lettuces, onions, leeks, etc ; and peaches, 
apricots, pears, apples, dates, persimmons, and 
grapes — the last being the best and in the 
greatest variety. 

If the roads are poor, the means of transport 
are equally primitive. For the carriage of heavy 
goods and farming operations rude springless 
carts are employed, drawn by as many as five or 
six animals* The passenger carts are smaller, 
but also springless ; and the traveller emplojring 
that mode of conveyance had better be well 
provided with wadded quilts to act as '' buffers," 
or he will be a sadder — howbeit wiser — man 
before a day^s journey is completed. A more 
comfortable mode of travelling is by the " litter," 
an enlai^ed sedan chair carried by two mules — 
one behind and one in front When good 
trained animals can be procured, together with 
a reliable muleteer, one can get over his 30 
miles per day quite comfortably. For carrying 
ordinsiry luggage, not exceeding about 150 lb. 
in weight, mules are also employed, the strongest 
animals being able to carry at least 300 lb. 
and keep up their 30 miles a day for weeks 
together. The sedan chair carried by bearers is 
in Shansi reserved almost exclusively for the 

42 Fire and Sword in Shansi 

highest officials. As to accommodation while 
travelling, at regular stages on the main road inns 
will be found. These differ greatly, but all follow 
one general plan. On entering the main gate is 
a courtyard for the accommodation of the mules 
and equipages ; and at the upper end of this, or 
in a separate enclosure, are the rooms for the 
guests. These rooms contain nothing but the 
brick stove bed (k'ang), a table and a few chairs 
— plus any amount of dirt In the summer hosts 
of vermin have to be encountered — and fought ; 
and while in the winter they are somewhat 
quiescent, one has then to run the risk of being 
suffocated by the fumes of the fire in the brick 
stove bed, the chimney of which frequently opens 
into the room. 

Shansi may be regarded as the cradle of the 
Chinese nation ; for while the origin of the race is 
shrouded in obscurity, the first records represent 
it as a band of emigrants from the north-east 
which settled in the fertile plains of Shansi and 
Honan. Near the present city of Ping Yang Fu 
lived and ruled the famous emperors, Yao, Shuen, 
and Yu (B.C. 2356—2196); and 5 miles south of 
that city was a great memorial temple to these 
three great worthies, the remains of which could 
be traced some few years ago. 

The present inhabitants were, till two years 
ago, regarded as the most peaceable and law- 
abiding, people of the whole empire. Many of 
them are keen bankers and business people, one 
of the cities — Ping Yao on the T'ai Yiian plain — 

The Province of Shansi 43 

being regarded as the banking centre of the whole 
of China ; and Shansi men may be found as bankers 
and pawnshop-keepers in every province of the 

Unfortunately, the use of opium has spread 
rapidly throughout the province, and now has 
within its toils a large proportion both of the men 
and women. This is not the place to enter into 
a discussion of the subject, but a residence of 
J^nQr years among the. people has but confirmed 
the opinion that this is one of the most serious 
questions which the Chinese Government has to 
face, afiecting as it does the welfare of the whole 

The architecture of Shansi presents two notable 
features. Many of the villages consist of cave 
houses dug out of the peculiar loess formation, 
the front being built up with brick or stone, with 
door and window. Where the position is favour- 
able — as on a sloping hillside — these houses rise 
in terrace after terrace with just a narrow pathway 
in front of each. Cool in summer, these residences 
are warm in winter; but the great drawback is 
that there is no possibility of ventilation. On the 
plains, the houses in many of the villages 'are flat- 
roofed ; while in others the houses of the well-to- 
do are far better than any to be found in the 
towns. Not a few of the rich people, previously 
referred to as bankers and traders, have their 
family residences in the villages ; and on the T'ai 
Yiian plain especially many of these houses 
present quite a castellated appearance with their 

44 F^f^ ^^d Sword in Shansi 

high towers. Even where such elaborate structures 
cannot be erected, the majority of the Shansi houses, 
with their solid brick walls and tiled roofs, are in 
great contrast to the much poorer dwellings of the 
neighbouring province of Chihli. As to why the 
people of Shansi are so much better housed, the 
story is, that many years ago a native of the pro- 
vince had risen to be a Minister at Court. One 
day when in attendance on the Emperor it rained 
very heavily, and the Minister began to weep. 
" What is the matter ? " asked the Emperor. " I 
am thinking of my poor father and mother away 
in Shansi, who have no proper shelter in such 
weather as this." The Emperor, struck with his 
fidelity, at once gave him permission to erect for 
his parents a substantial dwelling ; and ever since 
the people of Shansi have availed themselves of 
the licence granted to build for themselves superior 
houses to those in the adjoining provinces. 

So far as known, the first Protestant mission- 
aries to jdsit Shansi were Revs. Alexander 
Williamson and Jonathan Lees, who travelled 
extensively in North China during the years 
1 869:::=70-; but the first to go to the province with 
a view to permanent, .settlement were Messrs. 
Turner_and James. After a long overland journey 
from Nanking they arrived at the south-east border 
of Shansi in November 1 876, and, passing through 
several cities of the Tseh Chou Fu district, reached 
Ping Yang Fu two weeks later. Having preached 
and sold books in seven walled cities and many 
other smaller places, they returned to Hankow in 

The Province of Shansi 45 

January 1877. A month later they set out on 
a second journey to the province, and passing 
through Ping Yang Fu reached the capital in 
April, and made it their headquarters for several 
months while visiting the cities and towns oi 
the plain. 

The terrible famine of 1877—79 had already 
begun to claim Its victTrhs, and Mr. James became 
so ill that Mr. Turner had to accompany him to 
the coast. News of the distress in Shansi had 
reached the Treaty ports ; and, two days after 
Messrs. Turner and James had left Tai Yiian Fu, 
Rev. Timothy Richard arrived with relief funds. 

Early in rg78 Mr. Turner was on his way 
back to Shansi with further relief, and was accom- 
panied by Rev. A . Whiting, of an American 
Mission, and Rev. David Hill of the Wesleyan 
Mission, Hankow. Mr. Whiting was not permitted 
to do much work, for soon after arrival he was 
taken ill with typhus fever, and died on 25 th 
April. That summer Messrs. Turner and David 
Hill visited the prefecture of Ping Yang Fu to 
distributeJatfDinejrelief, and saved many lives. 

The first ladies to visit the province were Mrs. 
Hudson Taylor, Miss Home, and Miss Crickmay 
(now Mrs. Turner), who arrived in T'ai YUan Fu 
on 23rd Oct. 1878. A few days later Mr. and 
Mrs. James, and subsequently Mr. and Mrs. 
Richard, arrived. The -fgingle ladies.opened schools 
for the orphan- ^k. who had^ been received after 
the famine. 

tn iSScTihe first Medical Mission in Shansi was 

• I 

46 Fire and Sword in Shansi 

opened by the late Dr. Harold Schoiield ; and 
about the same time the first members of the 
Oberlin Band of the American Board Mission 
entered the province, and, after studying the lan- 
guage, occupied the two stations of T'ai Ku Hsien 
and Fen Chou Fu. The China Inland Mission 
during the next few years opened several stations 
south of the T'ai Yuan plain, while the Baptist 
Mission extended its operations northwards. 

In the district between the two arms of the 
Great Wall in the north, work wa$ commenced in 
1886, when Mr. Thomas King of the China 
Inland Mission opened a station at Ta T'ung Fu. 
At the time of the outbreak this station was 
occupied by Mr. and Mrs. Stewart M*Kie, Mr. 
and Mrs. I'Anson, and two single ladies. Within 
the same district the cities of So Ping Fu, Hun 
Yiian Hsien, and Ying Chou had been occupied 
by members of the Swedish Holiness Mission, 
Associates of the C.I.M., by whom much valuable 
itinerate work has been done. 

In the extreme north the cities of Kwei Hwa 
Chdng and Pao T^o were occupied in 1886 by 
Messrs. Geo. W. Clarke and W. T. Beynon of the 
C.I.M., and during the following years much itiner- 
ate work was done and a few converts gathered. 
In 1893 21 large band of new workers of the 
Christian Missionary Alliance went to that district, 
and the two C.I.M. stations were used by them as 
training homes until they could obtain some 
knowledge of the language and people. Later on 
these two stations were handed over to them, and 

The Province of Shansi 47 . 

the whole area outside the northern arm of the 
Grpat Wall was allotted to that Mission. 
-^Statistics can never convey an accurate impres- 
sion of the results of Mis^iftn work, but it may be 
stated that, while in r 8 80 there were 12 mis- 
sionaries (including the wives and singleTadies) 
ia^he^ipyince aijdJLQjj^tized.-Converts, in 1858 
the number of missionaries was 151, many of 
whom had only Seen In CKiha a few years, and 
the mem bers o f the different churcbes in good 
standing numbered 1513. 

The Spread of Boxerism in Shansx 

IT is now recognised by those foreigners who 
have taken the trouble to make inquiries, 
as well as by the Chinese authorities themselves, 
that if one man more than another was respon- 
sible for the troubles of 1900, that man was the 
Manchu Yii Hsien ; and it will be instructive to 
trace a little of his history. 

In 1898 two German missionaries were 
murdered in the province of Shantung, and 
at the request of tfie German Ambassador the 
then Governor, Li Ping Heng, was dismissed from 
office; and the edict in the Peking Gazette dis- 
missing him contained the words "yung puh ti 
yung" (not to be mentioned for employment 
again). The same man not long after was put 
into a new and highly influential position, created 
for his sole use, where his power was almost 
unlimited. In 1899 this Li Ping Heng recom- 
mended to the Throne, as one loyal and patriotic 
and to be implicitly trusted, Yii Hsien ; and he 
was rapidly promoted from one post to another, 
until in March of that year he was made Governor 


The Spread of Boxerism in Shansi 49 

of Shantung. He only held that office for eight 
months, but during that time he gave a new lease 
of life to the Boxers, and left a track of ruin 
behind him. Hundreds of native Christian families 
were rendered homeless, many were killed ; and the 
Boxers, unchecked, looted, burned, and killed with 
the tacit approval of the Governor. On 26th 
December Yii Hsien was removed under foreign 
pressure, and replaced by General Ylian Shih Kdi ; 
but, although supposed to be in disgrace for his 
failure to suppress the rioters, he was received 
with honour by the Court in Peking, and presented 
with a scro ll written by the hand of the Empress 
Dowager herself — a mark of high favour. 

On 31st December, immediately after Yii 
Hsien had resigned his office, and as a natural 
consequence of his course, the Rev. S. P. Brooks 
of the Anglican Mission was barbarously murdered 
by the Boxers. 

Two of the most well-known missionaries in 
China — Dr. Arthur H. Smith and Dr. H. P. Porter 
— who had been in the centre of the trouble from 
the beginning, drew up a memorandum of charges 
against Yii Hsien tojg^i^rd against theL possibility 
of his reappointment, sending, on 22nd January 
1900, one copy to the miUta^. .Governor^ and 
another to the American Minister, Major.JCpnger. 
It is so Important, as clearly proving that the 
true character of the ex-Governor of Shantung 
was known even then, that it will be well to quote 
it in full 


V. • 

50 Fire and Sword in Shansi 

"Memorandum of Charges against H. E. 
YO HsiEN, late Governor of Shantung. 

"That knowing the existence of the I Ho 
Ch'uan in this province on a Icirge and thr^iten- 
ing scale, a society wholly contrary to the 
Imperial laws, and in previous reigns severely 
punished, he took no steps to antagonise it: 
That, after a fight had taken place in October 
between the provincial troops and the Boxers, 
the said Governor was very angry that about a 
hundred of the latter had been killed, although 
told by the military officials that the encounter 
was unavoidable: That he then secured the 
degradation of the Prefect and of the Hsien of 
Ping Yuan, not for allowing this rebellion to go 
unchecked, but for trying at last to stop it : That 
he dismissed die military commander in charge at 
the time, and employed him no more for this 
reason : That he encouraged the Boxers by 
releasing the prisoners taken in that action, 
requiring no guarantee of good behaviour, to 
the immediate encouragement of the leaders, 
who had been ready to give up the cause after 
this fight : That he secretly promoted and 
fomented the rebellion by refusing to allow the 
troops to fight, repeatedly sending them into the 
field with these implicit orders: That his well- 
known attitude was immediately influential in 
strengthening the rebellion, and was tiie direct 
cause of the murder of the late Mr. Brooks, as 
much as if the late Governor had despatched 

The Spread of Boxerism in Shansi 51 

him with his own hand : That in a secret 
memorial to the Throne he advocated the em- 
ployment of the I Ho Ch'uan as an agency 
for driving foreigners out of the province, thus 
giving an offidal sanction to the movement: 
That, for all the complicated storm of ruin in 
which so large a part of Shantung has been 
involved for so many months, Yu Hsien is 
directly responsible. We think that the Foreign 
Powers interested in the good government of 
this province ought to insist that he be degraded, 
and the edict should be published in the Peking 
Gazette with the i^rase ' never to be mentioned 
for emi^oyment again,' and his conduct should be 
assigned. Also that the said Powers should see 
to the perpetual enforcement of this punishment, as 
onlyan adequate guarantee of peace in thisprovince. 
(To demand the issuing of such a decree and then 
let it lapse into ' innocuous desuetude ' would be 
much worse than not to demand it) " ^ 

The English Ambassador, Sir Claude Mac- 
donald, ako knew this man's character, for in his 
despatch to the Tsung Li Ylmen on 17th January 
he says : '* The whole of the present difficulty can 
be traced to the attitude of the late Governor of 
Shantung, who secretly encouraged the seditious 
society known as * The Boxers.' " 

Notwithstanding this, in two month/ time — 
that is, on 15 th March — Yu Hsien the degraded 
was appointed Governor of Shansi. The Ambas- 

^ Tht Box$r Risifig, Slianghai, Aug. 1901. 

52 Fire and Sword in Shansi 

sadors " protested," but did nothing else to induce 
the Chinese authorities to cancel the appointment, 
and made no further effort to save the two 
hundred odd missionaries who were in that pro- 
vince from a man who had already shown himself 
so distinctly anti - foreign. Smarting under the 
rebuff received in Shantung, his bitterness towards 
foreigners was increased, and ha, took ..with- him 
into Shansi Boxer experts, who were to. traia. the 
people of that province in the Boxer arts. 
r"tJp to that time the inhabitants of Shansi had 
been noted for their docijit y, no serious disturb- 
ance of any kind having occurred during the more 
than twenty years of Protestant missionary work 
among them ; and it needs some explanation to 
account for the people taking up the Boxer cause 
with the alacrity they did. 

In the first place, it must be remembered that 
since the great famine of 1877—79 there had 
i^S^ji an influx into Shansi of thousands of 
strangers from the province of Shantung, who 
had been driven from their own homes by floods, 
etc. Being very poor, they were the first to feel 
the pinch of hunger through the prolonged 
drought in their adopted province, and the 
consequent rise in the price of grain. Ytt 
Hsien's Boxer leaders were Shantung men, and 
went first of all to their fellow-provincials, among 
whom they found many willing recruits. But 
the infection soon spread to the people of the 
province, for it was part of the Boxer propaganda 
to accuse the missionaries and Christians of being 

The Spread of Boxerism in Shansi 53 

thecause of_ jthQ . long-continued drought Many 
of the people remembered the horrors of the 
terrible famine which had devastated their pro- 
vince twenty years before, and were willing to do 
anything to avert such another catastrophe. 

Some of the more intelligent of the native 
Christians were of the opinion that the animus 
against them was increased because they would 
not contribtuteL-iowarda, thfi local thftatricrll enter- | i'f 
tainments . which are always connected with idola- 
trous festivals, and frequently obscene. It can 
scarcely be conceived by foreigners (to whom these 
theatrical displays are senseless and absurd) what 
a hold they have upon the people, and what 
immense sums are spent upon them every year. 
:n times o f drou ght thgjrare more frequently held, 
i pflie hopes tha t tb& extra attentions paTd" the gods 
will induce them to send tl^^ it\uc1> joeedfid^ain. 

The officials evidently thought that the refusal 
of the Christians to pay the theatrical dues was 
one of the reasons why they were disliked by 
their heathen neighbours ; for, when the mission- 
aries returned to the province in 1901, among the 
proposals submitted by the officials for the settle- 
ment of affairs was the following : " The crime of 
Shansi in killing so many Christians is certainly 
great, but was due to the fact that thd people 
regard the theatricals as very important, and the 
Christians do not help to pay for them. It would /^ 
be good to have no theatricals for a short time. 
The Christians should not be asked to contribute 
towards idolatrous rites, but if they wish to go to 


^ H ^ ' - ^ . •' " " M'- 


54 Fii'c and Sword in Shansi 

the theatre they should help to pay expenses." 
The officials further asked the missionaries to urge 
the Christians to pay such dues in order to prevent 
future troubles. To this request there was, of 
course, but one answer; and it was further ex- 
plained to the officials that attendance at theatres 
was not only discountenanced by the Protestant 
^^- Church in China, but that if any member was 
found fo frequent them habitually he was dis- 

The people implicitly believed the absurd stories 
assiduously spread among them by the Boxers, 
and not a few of them were in abject terror and 
carried away with a frenzy. The old fable of 
foreigners and Christians cutting out and scatter- 
ing the figure of a man in paper, which in a few 
days came to life and then had the power of doing 
much harm, was revived, and gained credence. It 
was further said that men (more especially beggars) 
were hired by the Christians to poison. -Ac village 
4^ wells, and make a mark with some red substance 
on the doors of the bouses — ^the inhabitants of the 
houses so marked being sure to get ill, and perhaps 
die. A scurrilous, anti - foreign pamphlet^ which 
was widely circulated through the province, stated 
that foreign vessels seized at the coast had been 
found to contain large quantities of human blood, 
eyes, and the nipples of women's breasts!! If 
anyone into whose hands the pamphlet fell 
made one copy and gave it to a friend, he was 
promised immunity from all evil for himself; if 
he gave away ten copies, all his family would be 

The Spread of Boxerism in Shansi 55 

safe ; but if he distributed one hundred, his whole 
village would be similariy benefited. 

So great was the ter ror spre ad by these reports 
that numbetl^ persons were killed' iVbu had no 
connection with Christianity adttateyerT^r^ in COfa - 
sequence of tiieJ^wigHBxisting^ dro^^ manypeople 
were wandering about picking up a precarious 
living ; and not a few of them were accused of 
being in the pay of ibreigners, and killed at sight 
It was extremely dangerous even for respectable 
foot*travelIers to go about singly, especially if they 
happened to stop at a village well to drink. 
Immediately they might be seized and their 
belongings searched, to see if they had anything 
in the shape of medicine with which they could 
poison the water. For months many of the 
vills^e weJls wex£ guarded day and night ; and 
even in T'ai Yuan Fu the well-to-do people for 
diiee months would not drink any water drawn 
from the city wells, or employ the usual water 
carriers, but made their own servants fetch a 
supply from special wells outside. 

Frcun this it will be. rl^?ir that no more fertile 

soil could have been found foi; the tri^nsplanting 

*" ' — ~»^— — — —— ' ' ' ' ^" ' ' " " •' " ' * . , . ^ 

of Boxensm than that chosen by Yii Hsiea^"' Thus 
it was that the movement spread like wildfire in_^ 
Shansi, and the quiet law-abiding people of the <- 
province were suddenly turned against everything 
foreign; for it must be remembered that the 
fliovement in its inception was, firsts «iti*foi ' e ign, 
apd-then anfi-Clirlyilan because anti-foreign. 

Yii Hsien arrived as Governor of Shansi on 

56 Fire and Sword in Shansi 

1 9th April, and a waek later Boxer, placards were 
posted up and soJid-i«»-<Hflferent cities. Soon after, 
the Boxer leaders brought by the Governor from 
Shantung appeared . in several towns in central 
Shansi and commenced gathering recruits and 
instructing them in the Boxer arts and drill. By 
the middle of May they were ready for work, and 
began operations by attacking the bouse of a 
Chinese Christian — Elder -Sau — at the village of 
Fan, in the district of Hung Tung Hsien. They 
seriously wounded the elder, plundered his house, 
and carried away the silver and other valuables, 
offering to the bystanding crowd the things they 
did not want, and breaking the remainder in pieces. 
They then made their way to a neighbouring 
district, and for some days lived in a temple not 
7 miles from the prefectural city of Ping Yang 
Fu, where several missionaries were residing. 

Very soon after, other outrages were committed ; 
and, as the local officials appeared to be in league 
with the BoxecSt^the missionaries at Ping Yang Fu 
determined to send a statement of the facts to the 
Rev. G. B. Farthing of the English Baptist Mission 
at T'ai Yiian Fu, and leave it to his discretion as 
to whether he should report it or not to tihe 
Taot'ai — ^the official then entrusted with the care 
of foreign affairs. An accurate and detailed state- 
ment was therefore written out and sent. Mr. 
Farthing, knowing the Governor's anti- foreign 
propensities, and not being sure of the Taot'ai's 
position, thought it best to lay the plain statement 
of facts before the latter without comment or 



The Spread of Boxerism in Shansi 57 

appeal ; and this he did. The Taot'ai's reply was 
considered very satisfactory, as in it he — in con- 
junction with the FjkD£!aL (pfavincial Treasurer) 

and NjehtjaL-Xpcoyi^ci^^ .J^^g^). — ordered that 
the offenders should be brought to justice at once 
and the Christians protected. The magistrate of 
Hung Tung Hsien had himself reported to the 
Governor the outbreaks which had occurred within 
his jurisdiction; and subsequently Mr. Farthing 
secured a copy of the Governor's reply, but this 
was not so unequivocal. 

Postal communication between Shansi and the 
coast ceased at the end of May ; most of the last 
letters received from the missionaries (other than 
those subsequently left with servants) being dated 
about 13th May. A Mission courier who took 
later tetters was arrested by Boxers at Ting Chou, 
50 miles south-west of Pao Ting Fu, who cut 
open his mail-bags, destroyed their contents, and 
would have killed him but for the intervention 
of some bystanders, who begged for his life on the 
plea that he was merely employed by foreigners. 

Meantime matters were developing very rapidly 
in the neighbourhood of Peking and Tientsin 
which seriously affected Shansi. On 29th May 
the railway between Peking and Tientsin was torn 
up; and two days later Mr. Robinson of the 
S.P.G. was murdered, and, the day after, Mr. 
Norman of the same Mission. On 8th June at 
Tung Chou — some 13 miles east of Peking — 
there was a massacre of Christians ; and on the 
nth the Chancellor of the Japanese Legation was 



58 Fire and Sword in Shansi 

murdered at one of the gates of Peking. On the 
1 3th the Boxers entered that city, and two days 
later took possession of the native city of Tientsin. 
The Taku forts were taken by the fleets of the 
Allied Powers on the 17th; and on the 20th the 
German Minister at Peking was murdered, and the 
siege of the Legations commenced. 

When tidings of these earlier events reached 
England great anxiety was felt for the safety of the 
missionaries in Shansi, and on the 1 2th of June a 
telegram was despatched to Pai Yuan Fu saying, 
" We are anxious for your safety." A reply was 
received on the 22 nd, dated the 20th, with just the 
two words, "Safe, hopeful." These hopes were 
soon to be rudely dispelled, for (as was ascertained 
just a year afterwards, when the city was visited 
by Protestant missionaries for the first time after 
the massacres) on the 25tli of that month a 
proclamation — evidently the substance of the 
Imperial decree of 21st June — ^was posted nip at 
the telegraph ofKce, the gist of which was that 
war had beg^n at Taku, the Boxers having 
destroyed two foreign warships. It stated that 
as a result the Emperor was extremely fdeased, 
and further, " now even children were able to use 
the sword and protect the empire, and did not 
ask the Government for money or rations." It 
concluded by saying: "Foreign religions are reck- 
^ less and oppressive ; disrespectful to the gods and 
X /oppressive to the people. The righteous people 
will bum and kill. Your judgments from heaven 
are about to come. Turn from the heterodox 

The Spread of Boxerism in Shansi 59 

and revert to the true. Is it not benevolence to 
exhort^roii r^^plcj:JLth,^ Church ?_Therefbre'eai1y 
reform. If you do your duty you are good people. 
If you do not repent there will be no opportunity 
for after-regret. For this purpose is this procla- 
mation put forth. Let all comply with it" 

Tbfi next day (Zf^t^ June) an Imperial decree 
was posted iqx at the same place, which ssdd: 
** At present the Boxers are collecting at Tientsin 
and all adjacent places, but, as they have no 
leaders, Tuan Wang and K'ang Ih have received 
orders to take that place ; the Joxers are t o be 
give n two hund red piculs of rice, and on the^ist 
day of the sixth m6oh~(27th Juiie) are to receive 
one lrinjrH_t^i2U3and t°**^'' "'^ fi r*war^ " This 
decree was evidently published throughout the 
whole province at the same time, for from e vi dence 
suEsequently~ gathered it is known that trouble 
broke out simultaneously at nearly every Missioh "j^ 
station, though liT some cases tibe crisis was reached 
more rapidly than in others. 


T'ai Yuan Fu being the seat of the Governor — 
the notorious Yu Hsien — the fury of the storm 
naturally broke over that city; and, though it 
was not actually the first place to suffer, it will be 
well to begin by describing the sad events which 
occurred there, and then follow the spread of the 
storm first to the south and then to the north of 
that city* 

6o Fire and Sword in Shansi 

As the missionaries resident there on that date 
were all subsequently massacred, it will be as well 
to mention their names at once. In connection 
with the English Baptist Mission were Rev. G. B. 
Farthing, Mrs. Farthing, and three children ; and 
Rev. F. S. and Mrs. Whitehouse. Miss Ellen M. 
Stewart was there as governess to Mrs. Farthing's 
children. Two visitors were staying with Mrs. 
Farthing at the time — Miss Janet Stevens and 
Miss Mildred Clarke, both of the China Inland 
Mission. Rev. W. T. Beynon, the agent of the 
British and Foreign Bible Society, with his wife 
and three children, occupied a house not far from 
Mr. Farthing's; and Mr. Alexander Hoddle, an 
independent missionary, lived in the same com- 
pound but in a different courtyard. The premises 
of the Schofield Memorial Hospital were occupied 
by Dr. and Mrs. Lovitt, with their little son John ; 
Mr. and Mrs. George Stokes ; Mr. and Mrs. James 
Simpson ; and Miss Edith A. Coombs, who had 
charge of the girls' school, occupied with her 
scholars one corner of the compound. Dr. and 
Mrs. William Millar Wilson of the China Inland 
Mission, with their little son Alexander, were 
there as visitors, Mrs. Wilson and her child having 
arrived about 9th June, while Dr. Wilson had only 
arrived on the 26th. 

These were all located not far from the south- 
east corner of the city ; while close to the north 
gate were the Roman Catholic premises — a very 
large compound, containing a cathedral capable 
of accommodating about one thousand people ; a 

Entrance to Hospila.1 Compound, T'ai Vlian Fu, 
showing gateway (X) through which missionaries escaped, and s< 
Miss Coombs' martyrdom. 

Chapel on Hospital Compound, T'ai Yuan Fu, n 

The Spread of Boxerism in Shansi 6i 

seminary for training native priests; a girls* 
orphanage, etc. The foreigners living there at the 
time were two bishops, seven Sisters of Mercy, 
with several priests and lay brothers. 

27th June, according to the Chinese calendar, 
was the first day of the sixth moon, and the girls' 
school had that day been dismissed for the summer 
holidays, those scholars living in the city having 
returned to their homes, and only eleven remaining 
— those residing at a distance and others who had 
no home to go to. On the morning of that day 
things appeared as quiet as usual, and some thirty 
out-patients attended the dispensary, who were 
seen by Dr. Lovitt himself. A few in-patients, 
both male and female, were still in the hospital. 
In the afternoon Dr. Lovitt and another mission- 
ary, hearing of the decree which had been posted 
at the telegraph office the day before, went to see 
it for themselves; but as it had no official seal 
they determined to take no notice of it. About 
five o'clock Mrs. Wilson went with her little son 
Alexander in the mission cart to Mrs. Farthing's 
house, where she was to spend the evening ; but 
Dr. Wilson did not accompany her on account of 
a temporary indisposition. 

According to a previous arrangement, the 
carter on his return was to call at Mr. Beynon's 
house to bring Mrs. Beynon and her three 
children to the hospital compound to be company 
for Miss Coombs, who was the only foreigner 
living in the girls* schools. This he had done; 
and they had actually come within sight of the 

62 Fire and Sword in ^ansi 

hospital when they saw the crowd collecting at 
the main entrance, and wisely turned back. This 
was about six o'clock. The first to create a 
disturbance were _a. few lads and boys, mostly 
M awchus { and the missionaries went to the main 
entrance to speak with them, hoping they would 
disperse, but were met by a shower of stones, and 
had to retire and report the condition of affairs to 
those who were anxiously awaiting their return. 
The crowd at the front gate rapidly grew, and with 
the increase of numbers their courage rose. 

Stimulated by the cries of " Bum," " Kill," they 
first set fire to the waiting-room adjoining the 
street ; and the missionaries, seeing that mischief 
was really intended, at once took steps to acquaint 
their friends with the danger of their position, 
and protect themselves as far as possible. A 
messenger was despatched^ to Mr. Farthing, who 
immediately went to seek an interview with the 
Taot'ai to ask his help, but failed to see that 

Most of the Chinese helpers and servants with 
their families managed to escape under cover of 
the darkness by a back door; and then those 
remaining — including eleven scholars from the 
girls' school, with their Chinese pupil-teacher ; one 
woman, servant to Mrs. Lovitt; a dispensary 
assistant, Liu P'ai Yiian, and two men servants, 
Liu Hao and Lao Chen — all assembled with the 
missionaries in Dr. Lovitt's courtyard, as being the 
one most easily defended. Meanwhile the rioters 
forced their way into the compound, and, while 

The Spread of Boxerism in Shansi 63 

some pillaged the vacated buildings, others set 
fire to them ; and it was said that not a few, in 
their eagerness for loot, perished in the flames. 

At last the courtyard in which the missionaries 
had taken refuge was attacked, and they had to 
retreat into a few side-rooms used ^ as kitchen, 
store-room, etc. Naturally the Chinese children 
were greatly frightened, and b^an to cry. The 
Chinese woman who bravely remained with 
them (and eventually escaped) related that Miss 
Coombs endeavoured to comfort her little scholars 
by telling them that the rioters w(nild not harm 
them, as they only wished to kill the foreigners. 

At length — ^it must have been nearly midnight 
— the missionaries found they must vacate their 
last hiding-place, as the neighbours, fearing for 
the safety of their own houses, began to pull 
down tile small rooms in which they had taken 
refuge. After a ccmsultation, they determined to 
try and force a passage through the crowd and 
make their way to Mr. Farthing's house, though 
they had had no reply from him, and did not 
know what might be happening to their friends. 
Arranging themselves in some order, they started 
on their perilous journey; the men, who were 
armed, protecting the women and children as best 
they could Mrs. Simpson carried little Jacky 
Lovitt, as his mother was not in a condition to do 
so, and the old man Lao Chen bravely attempted 
to carry one of the bigger schoolgirls, who was 
veiy ill 

The first real difficulty they encountered was at 

64 Fire and Sword in Shansi 

the front gate, where a large fire had been made 
by the mob, evidently with the intent of impeding 
the escape of the missionaries; while all along 
the street was a howling mob. Having run the 
gauntlet of the fire, they had to face the yelling 
crowd, who pelted them with brickbats, and tried 
to beat them with sticks; and they had to use 
their arms to protect the women and children. 
The din and confusion was very great, and the 
Chinese accompanying the missionaries evidently 
lost their heads, for when they arrived at Mr. 
Farthing's they found they had only the two 
young men, Liu Fai Yiian and Liu Hao, and three 
schoolgirls with them ; while all the others and 
Miss Coombs were missing. 

Messengers were immediately despatched to 
ascertain the whereabouts of the missing ones, but 
it was not until the next day that the sad tidings 
were brought to them that Miss Coombis had lost 
her life in her attempt (which proved successful) 
to save the lives of two of her scholars. That 
same night the two girls were carried off by men 
in the crowd, and were not recovered until nearly 
a year later, when they gave a very clear account 
of their experiences on that terrible night. These 
two girls — Fu Jung and Ai Tao — had not been 
in the school long, and were undergoing the pain- 
\ ful process of having their bound feet loosened. 
\ In consequence they could not walk very well, 
and in the confusion were left behind. Miss 
Coombs had safely passed the gauntlet of the fire 
at the front gate, when she noticed that two of 

The Spread of Boxerism in Shansi 65 

her prot^g^ were missing, and, anxious for their 
safety, bravely went back for them. Finding Fu 
Jung, she carried her on to the street aiid then 
went back for Ai T'ao, who was a bigger, heavier 
child ; and, while helping her along as best she 
could, they both stumbled and fell. This was a 
sigrnal for the crowd to begin to pelt them with 
brickbats ; and Miss Coombs covered little Ai Tao 
with her body, whispering in her ear, ^' Don't be 
afraid ; we shall soon be where there is no more 
pain or sorrow." But almost at the same time 
the child was snatched away, while Miss Coombs 
was drawn back and thrust into the burning debris. 
Not a few testify to the fact that twice she 
managed to extricate herself from the fire, but 
each time was thrust back. Once she knelt as if 
in prayer, and the crowd shouted, '' See, she is 
pleading for her life. It is no good." Finally 
she was thrust back again, and more debris heaped 
upon her ; and thus she was the first of that noble 
band to obtain the martyr's crown. The next 
day two friendly Chinese ventured to the spot and 
found her charred remains, which they buried in 
the Mission garden. 

As regards the eleven schoolgirls, they all suf- 
fered more or less, but were eventually recovered ; 
and an account of their experiences will be found 
on page 199. 

The following letter, written by Dr. Lovitt the 
day after the burning of the hospital and death 
of Miss Coombs, is of peculiar interest, as it is one 
of the last communications received from any of 


66 Fire and Sword in ^lansi 

the T*ai Yiian Fu martyrs. It was handed over 
to the care of a servant, and did not reach me till 
June 1 90 1, when I was in Peking. It was known 
that other letters were written by the missionaries, 
and entrusted to the care of one of Mr. Farthingfs 
helpers for safe keeping. Fearing for his own 
life, he handed them over to a money shop which 
had done business for the Missions, and eventually 
they fell into the hands of the officials, who, 
evidently fearing they would contain incriminating 
evidence against themselves, unfortunately burned 
them. Their destruction is an irreparable loss, 
and one which we slmll never cease to mourn :-^ 

'* Baptist Mission PAbmisss 

(Mr. Farthing's Housb), 

Tai yuan Fu, 28/A fum 1900, 

Thursday mornings 

" Dear Friend, — We don't know whom you 
may be, but we here thought it well to leave this 
letter in the hands of a trusty native to give to 
the first foreigner who might come along: 

'* Last night the Mission premises belonging to 
the Shou Yang Mission (until recently so called), 
but the property of Dr, Edwards, were completely 
burnt down by a lawless rabble, armed only with 
sticks aaid. stoaes. They commenced their work 
about seven o'clock, and we held our ground in 
one of the courts until eleven o'clock, when we 
found it necessary to escape. We did so by 
rushing through the crowd and burning debris, 
defended by three revolvers and CMie rifle. 

The Spread of Boxerism in Shansi 67 

" The following were on the fired premises : — 

Dr. Wilson, CJ.M. 

Mr. and Mrs* Stokes. 

Mr. and Mrs. Simpson. 

Miss Coombs. 

Dr. and Mrs. Lovitt and child. 
^ We grieve to say Miss Coombs met with her 
death during her flight, being, as we afterwards 
heard, beaten down into the burning fragments 
when tiying to rise up, after having stumbled first 
She is now at rest. 

"We the following — B.M.S., Mr. and Mrs. 
Whitehouse, newly arrived ; Rev. G. B. and Mrs. 
Farthing and three children ; Miss Stewart, 
governess to the Farthing children ; Mrs. Wilson 
and child, C.I.M. ; Misses Stevens and Clarke, 
together with the above-mentioned, who escaped 
last night — are now here. 

" Notifications were sent to the officials (it is 
impossible to accurately state to whom, as we 
have missed the messengers). 

" It is reported that the ChKh Fu was not far oflf 
in his chair, and a few soldiers, who did nothing, 
except possibly to throw a few bricks at one and 
another in the mob. There was no real attempt 
at our protection. 

" This morning we are all safe and well ; friendly 
natives, foliawed us along the main street last 
evening, but as we turned the corner from the 
mam street to reach the back of Mr. Farthing's 
premises we requested that they should not follow 
us, and they stayed, leaving us alone. The mob 

68 Fire and Sword in Shansi 

did neither follow us nor come on later, and we 
have been unmolested until now. 

" Mr. Farthing and Mr. Whitehouse left here 
about eight o'clock with a native helper (Mr. Liu), 
to attempt an interview with the officials. Mean- 
time we are awaiting their return, and will wire the 
result later if there is an opportunity. 

" Mr. and Mrs. Beynon and three children 
(B. and F. B._ Society) are at a house not far 
distant from this. Mr. Hoddle is with them. 
Mr. and Mrs. Underwood, B.M.S., are still at 
Hsin Chou, and were proposing to return to this 
city this week, to arrive at their house on Saturday 

" We would like our dear home ones to know 
we are being marvellously sustained by the Lord. 
He is precious to each one of us. The children 
seem to have no fear. We cannot but hope for 
deliverance (hope dies hard), and our God is well 
able to do all things — even to save us from the 
most impossible surroundings when hope is gone. 
Our trust is in Him entirely and alone. We at 
the same time are seeking to do all that is in our 
power to do, and asking guidance at every step. 

" Messrs. Farthing and Whitehouse have re- 
turned, with good report of promises to protect. 
We fear it is not to be trusted. 

*• There is not much time. We are ready. 
"Arnold E. Lovitt, M.R.C.S." 

From 28th June to 7th July the missionaries 
who escaped from the hospital compound remained 


The Spread of Boxerism in Shansi 69 

at Mr. Farthing's house; while Mr. and Mrs. 
Whitehouse were in another, close to them. Mr. 
and Mrs. Beynon with their children and Mr. 
Hoddle were still in their own compound. All 
were carefully guarded by soldiers ; and that these 
houses were not burnt was evidently due to the 
fact that their destruction would involve other 
buildings, whereas the hospital premises were in a 
vacant district of the city. During those days a 
few faithful Chinese servants remained with them, 
and other native Christians were allowed to visit 
them. The city gates and walls were all care- 
fully guarded, so that there was no possibility of 
escape, even had they wished to make the 

On 5 th July they were visited by an official, 
who took the names of all the foreigners on Mr. 
Farthing's compound, and brought a message 
from the Governor saying that he could only 
promise them protection if they would go to 
another house where they would be more imme- 
diately under his eye. The missionaries suspected 
mischief, but said that if the Grovemor ordered 
them to go they must of course obey, though they 
had no wish to leave the house in which they 
were then residing. Arrangements were quickly 
made, and it was decided they should make the 
move on Friday the 6th ; but that day it rained 
so incessantly that the official who had the matter 
in hand asked the Governor that a delay might 
be made, till the following day. The rain con- 
tinued on the Saturday ; but when the Governor 

70 Fire and Sword in Shansi 

was appealed to for a further respite, he sent worcf 
that " even if it rained swords they must at once 
move to the new house." Mr. and Mrs. Beynon 
with their three children and Mr. Hoddle joined 
the party at Mr. Farthing's house in the afternoon ; 
but though it was raining heavily, and there would 
be but few people on the streets, they determined 
to wait till night-time before going to the quarters 
prepared for them by the Governor. Meanwhile 
carts were procured and an escort of soldiers 
provided. It must have been nearly midnight 
when the sorrowful procession started in a deluge 
of rain, taking with them only a few absolutely 
necessary things, and accompanied by five faithful 
Chinese — Liu P*ai Yiian, Liu Hao, Wang Hsi Ho, 
Chang Ch'eng Sheng, and a lad of fifteen, Ch'ang 
Ang, who had fled from Shou Yang. 

Arrived at the house chosen &x them, they 
made themselves as comfortable as possible for 
the night; and the next morning (Sunday 
.8th July) were able to examine their surround- 
ings. Th^ found that for their whole number 
(twenty-six, including children) there were only 
two comparatively small courts, the two inner 
courts being already occupied by the Rpman 
Catholics — ^viz. two bishops, both of whom had 
been in China over thirty years ; two priests ; one 
lay brother; seven Sisters of Mercy, who only 
arrived in the spring of 1 899 ; and five Chinese 
attendants. How the Roman Catholics spent 
that Sunday no one survived to relate ; but from 
two of their attendants who miraculously escaped 

The Spread of Boxerism in Shansi 7 1 

we know that the Protestant oaissionaries spent 
the day as quietly as possible ; several of them 
taking their turn to assist in the kitchen, Mrs. 
Simpson being particularly active. 

When the fateful day f Monday pfh ' f tt\y\ 
dawned, the foreigners evidently had no inkling 
as to what was to happen. After breakfast some 
of the men began to clean up the rooms and 
courtyards, while several of the ladies helped in 
the kitchen. Just before noon the Sub-Prefect 
(Hsien) called and took a list of all who were in 
the house, both foreigners and Chinese, saying 
it was by order of the Governor. Immediately 
after, the dispensary assistant, Liu P'ai Yiian, was 
sent out by Mr. Stokes with a few cash to be 
given to the woman who had taken charge of 
three of the schoolgirls; while Liu Hao, the 
bootmaker, was sent by Mr. Farthing for a 
bricklayer and whitewasher to make some repairs. 

As was ascertained just a year later, when 
other Protestant missionaries returned to the 
province, tfae^JGrowrnor had determined that on 
that^dayi^ WQUld ki}l alL-tbe for eig ne rs in T.'ai 
Yiian Fu. He evidently only took a few of the 
officials into his confidence; and one at least — 
fja^ j^i^f'ai — ^strenuously opposed the course he 
was about to pursue, but unfortunately without 
result It must have been about two o'clock in 
the afternoon when he ordered a number of 
officers with their soldiers to accompany him, 
and, mounting his own horse, led the way. He 
made as though he would go out of the city by 

72 Fire and Sword in Shansi 

the north gate, but before reaching that point he 
suddenly wheeled round and went to the house 
where the missionaries were confined. He there 
ordered their immediate arrest ; and they appear 
to have made no resistance — as indeed it would 
have been useless. 

All who were found within the compound 
(Protestants and Roman Catholics) were seized; 
and it so happened that there were several 
Chinese there on business, including the mason 
whom Mr. Farthing had summoned only an hour 
or two before. But no excuse was listened to, 
and all were marched off to the Governor's 
y&men between files of soldiers, where they were 
taken into the courtyard adjpining^ the street and 
surrounded by soldiers — not Boxers. As to 
what really occurred, the whole truth will probably 
never be known, but, from inquiries made on the 
spot, it seems certain that the Governor did not 
assault any with his own hand; but, having 
asked the missionaries where they came from, and 
being answered " From England," and " Fsem 
France," just gaye the order " Sha " (kill) to the 
soldiers, who answered with a shout, and immedi- 
ately fell upon their defenceless victims, killing 
them indiscriminately. 

So eager was the Governor to begin his bloody 
work, that he had not Waited for the arrival of a 
party of missionaries who had only reached T*ai 
Yiian Fu the day before and been confined in 
the Sub-Prefect's y^men. These were Mr. and 
Mrs. Pigott and their son William Wellesley; 

The Via Dolorosa, Tai Vlan Fit, 9TH July 1900. 

House in which the Missionaries were arrested. 

Entrance to the Governor's V'Smen, the Scene of the Massacre. 

The Spread of Boxerism in Shansi 73 

Miss Duval ; Mr. John Robinson ; and Ernestine 
and Mary Atwater — ^two little girls from the 
station of Fen Chou Fu who had gone to Shou 
Yang to have the advantage of the school which 
Mr. and Mrs. Figott hoped to establish for fore^ 
children. To give the history of their sufferings, 
we must go back a few days. 

During the summer Mr. Pigott had been busy 
superintending the erection of a new and more 
commodious dwelling, and this was finished and 
occupied on 8th June. 

On nth June he wrote to Mr. Farthing at 
Tai Yiian Fu, saying — 

''Thanks for reassuring news as to rumours 
afloat just now. This place is full of them, the 
people being assured that we shall all very 
shortly be killed; that between the new Fut'ai 
and the Boxers we have no chance. It appears 
that on Thursday last a troop— about three 
hundred, they say — of Kansu soldiers passed 
through here from the east and spread the news. 
I am told that all the shopkeepers have received 
notice in die form of a 'circular' or tract, and 
that thiSL^tates that wherever idols have been put 
away^ there all killed. This has made 
things lively for the time, and I was twice 
threatened yesterday on my way from our out- 
station at An Chih. All this has begun since the 
new Fut'ai's appointment. My carter was stopped 
and beaten on the road near Shih Tieh because 
he was recognised as belonging to foreigners. 
Tliis was shortly before the Fut'ai's arrival, but 

74 ^^^ ^^^ Sword in Shansi 

after his appointment; and the very day he 
passed we had stones thrown into one of the 
rooms. His dislike to foreigners may not have 
anjrthing to do with this, but it is a curioi^ 
cmncidence that the Boxer propaganda should 
become so active immediately after he gets settled 
into office." 

On the 23rd he wrote again — 

"It seems to me that it is time some steps 
were taken by us in this province to cotnmiuiajcate 
with the coast and the Consul along some route 
other than the ordinary one, and I write to 
suggest that you should consult with friends and 
send off such a courier. We here are veiy short 
of funds, as I believe several others are also, and I 
should be glad to share the expenses of such an 
effort. From what I can gather, there would be 
no difficulty in any man getting through if he 
had nothing about him to identify him with 
foreigners; and I should judge that if he had 
nothing but letters directed in native style he 
could both go and come and bring up bank 
drafts, which at present seem to be the chief need. 

*' Here we meet with no trouble, and have been 
quite quiet during the passage of the T'ai Yiian 
troops. They have all gone to Peking by forced 
marches, and one of our Christians who is 
employed in the y^men says that troops from 
four other provinces are shortly to pass here 
also. Now the people on the street have been 
trying to induce them as they pass to attack us. 
So I am told ; and, as this might be serious in the 

The Spread of Boxeriam in Shansi 75 

case of other troops, I should be very much 
obliged if you would send in another * Pingtieh ' 
(petition) notifying the Taot'ai of the matter. 

" The Fut'ai is on his way to the capital, and 
orders have come for his reception here on the 
3rd. I hope it may prove that he is to be 
removed from here. Report goes that he desires 
to petition for leave to fight the foreigners. I 
hope things may be better for his absence, and 
that matters may be righted at Peking before he 
returns. I hear he brou ght up Boxers in his 
staff of foll owers, a nd have no* dbiibT that "^e 
whole thing is part of a pljufjcarried on"Sy some 
o f tfao^ in high places. If our European 
Governments see" this and^ct promptly, I expect 
that the trick will be given up shortly; but if 
the plea of * We can't help it — beyond our con- 
trol' is allowed, things may drag on for some 
time to come. I trust you are all well, and being 
kept free of anxiety. 

''The ocean has receded 9 li from the shore 
— no foreign troops can land. A great iron 
trident has erected itself in the sea. Boxeiis' 
food multiplies itself in their hands, so that they 
may never suffer from want. The foreign 
L^ations in Peking are all destroyed. Such 
are some of the evil reports (yao yen). 

" We are all well and in peace, thank God ; but 
the terrible drought continues, and there is great 
distress, I fear. 

"P.S. — I have just received word of a good 
proclamation against 'yao yen' posted by the 

76 Fire and Sword in Shansi 

Pu Chen Szu — Fantfai, I suppose. It reproves the 
Mandarins for not taking action. This is a good 
sig^, I believe. It may be the answer to our 

And on the 27th he wrote to Mr. Stokes — 

"We have just come out of our prayer- 
meeting to find rain coming down nicely. The 
passage which Li Pai took was, ' I am poor and 
needy — make no tarrying, O my God.' The 
* make no tarrying ' was turned into prayer, and 
we rose to our feet to find rain nicely falling. 

" A proclamation from the Fant'ai is also up, 
reproving the magistrates for not taking steps to 
check the evil reports. Last night also Lao An 
brought from T'ai Ku sufficient silver to pay my 
debts and leave something to go on upon. So 
% our mercies have not come singly. Praise the 

From these letters (which of course never 
reached those to whom they were addressed, and 
were recovered just a year after they were written) 
it will be seen that, while there was much to 
cause grave anxiety, nothing more serious was 
anticipated than that their communication with 
the coast might be cut off for some time, and 
that they would be short of funds. It was not 
until the morning of Friday 29th June that Mr. 
Pigott received a letter from Mr. Stokes telling 
him of the burning of the hospital and the death 
of Miss Coombs. Almost at the same time the 
local magistrate sent him word to say that, in 
consequence of instructions received from the 


The Spread of Boxerism in Shansi 77 

Governor, he could no longer protect him, A 
consultation was immediately held with the 
trusted Qbifiese on the premises as to what was 
best to be done ; and some Christians who were 
at that time staying on the Mission compound as 
patients, invited the missionaries to go to their 
village. .jC£eh Liang*- -Shan), which was situated 
in a sparsely populated hilly district, some 15 
miles to the soudi. The invitation was at once, 
and thankfully, accepted. Preparations were 
made there and then; and taking three saddle- 
ponies for the ladies and children to ride, and 
two pack-donkeys to cany a few necessaries, they 
set off in the afternoon, and reached the village 
that same evening. They were accompanied by 
four Chinese — Li Pai, the shepherd; Miao, an 
innkeeper; and his son, Heh Kou, a lad of 
sixteen, all of whom were Christians; and their 
cook, Yao Chien Hsiang. The village to which 
they fled was one of the small cave villages so 
common among the loess hHIs of Shansi, and 
they were warmly welcomed by the Christian 
family into their small quarters. To avoid 
publicity as much as possible, the foreigners 
occupied two small cave rooms, which were only 
lighted by a little paper-covered window which 
was over the one door. 

Saturday (30th June) was spent quietly, and 
on Sunday (ist July) the much and long-desired 
rain fell in torrents — the jeo^le of Shou Yang, 
whence the missionaries had fled, no doubt 
attributing it to the absence of the ''foreign 

78 Fire and Sword in Shansi 

devils.'* But on the Monday (2nd July) the 

"terriBie news was brought to them that the Box ers 

jiad risen and were killing^ the Christians in the 

n eigh bourinc viHacflSi One after another the 

messengers came in bringing accounts of the 

atrocities of the Boxers, and it was decided that 

the best course wcmld be for the missi onari es to 

return to Shou Yang, and 4)lacQ.thejn^seIvesjn. the 

liiSiH^s' of the magistrate^ as if they, remained where 

they were they would assuredly be killed. 

Towards evening they set off on their 
sorrowful return journey across the hilly loess 
roads, now made slippery by the recent rains, 
accompanied by Miao the innkeeper, and his 
son, and Yao the cook. The difficult jour- 
ney was accomplished uneventfully, until they 
reached the river flowing just south of the 
city, and which had become swollen. It was 
now quite dark. After some trouble the river 
was safely crossed, but not till all the travellers 
were more or less wet. Here the Chinese who 
had so bravely remained with the missionaries 
fled for their own lives, as they heard the voices 
of men apparently on the lookout for the 
foreigners. From other sources, however, we 
learned that Mr. and Mrs. Pigott and party 
managed to elude them in the dark, and went 
first to their own house in the east suburb, which 
they found sealed by the official They then 
decided to go into the city to the magistrate's 
y&men. This they were able to do without being 
observed, and were at once taken va and accom- 

The Spread of Boxerism in Shansi 79 

modated in two very dirty rooois usually occupied 
by ^&men_" runners." The magistrate did not 
go to Mr. Pigott, but gave instructions that a 
church member named Li Lan Su, employed in 
the ylLmen, should be told off to wait upon the 

They remained under the care of the official 
for three days, when he sent word to say tha^,^ in 
consequence of instructions received from the 
t5ovSmor, he could protect them no longer, but 
would send them under escort to the border of his 
jurisdiction in whatever direction they wished to 
gb^florth, south, east, or west. It was eventually 
dedded that they should be sent to T'ai Yiian Fu ; 
but whether this was Mr. Pigott's decision or not 
will probably never be known, as all the evidence 
subsequently gathered on the spot goes to prove 
that letters were written during the three da)rs di^ 
party was in the y^men, but diat they were after* 
wards destroyed by the official lest they should 
contain incriminating evidence. 

When it was decided that the missionaries 
should go to T'ai Yiian Fuj, the magistrate sug« 
gested through' an Intermediary that it would be 
well if Mr. Pigott and Mr. Robinson wore loose 
handcuffs on tiie journey, as the road they would 
have to pass was infested by bands of Boxers, who 
might try to kill them. If they wore the hand- 
cuffs, it could be represented to the Boxers by the 
escort that the foreigners were being sent as 
prisoners to the Governor, and therefore should 
not be molested. The magistrate did not appear 

8o Fire and Sword in Shansi 

to see that he was thus giving evidence of his 
incapability and weakness. At first Mr. Pigott 
objected to the plan, but, it is said, at last con- 
sented. Two large country carts were provided 
for their accommodation, and the little company left 
Shou Yang on Friday 6th July. Though only a 
two days' journey, they did not reach T'ai Yiian Fu 
till the afternoon of Sunday the 8th. Several times 
on the road they were stopped by Boxers, who 
wished to kill them at once ; but the escort spoke 
" good words," showed the official passport, and 
were allowed to proceed. 

Arrived at the capital, they were taken at once 
to the yftmen of the Sub-Prefect (Hsien), and 
while waiting at the entrance were seen by the 
two young men, Liu P'ai Yiian and Liu Hao, who 
were serving Mr. Farthing and his party. Both 
these men testify that all the party were travel- 
stained and looked very weary; and that Mr. 
Pigott and Mr. Robinson were wearing t^ht 
handcuffs, which could not be removed without 
being unlocked. Their testimony was subse- 
quently confirmed by some of the soldiers who 
acted as the escort on the journey, and who were 
interviewed at Shou Yang. They first adhered 
to the old story that the handcuffs worn were loose, 
but afterwards modified their statement by saying 
that ze;^^;i they started the handcuffs given to Mr. 
Pigott and Mr. Robinson were loose; but when 
they arrived at the town of Yu Tzu the Boxers 
saw that they were loose, and insisted that they 
should be changed for smaller ones 1 

The Spread of Boxerism in Shansi 8i 

The two young men were at once recognised 
by Mr. and Mrs. Pigott, who, in response to a 
question as to whether anything could be done for 
them, said they only wished to have some melons 
to eat. These the young men procured for them, 
and then went off to inform Mr. Farthing, and 
take a message to him from Mr. Pigott asking if 
he could accommodate the Shou Yang party in his 
quarters. Mr. Farthing immediately sent word 
back to come, by all means ; but when the mes- 
sengers reached the yAmen Mr. and Mrs. Pigott 
and those with them had been summoned inside 
to see the Sub-Prefect, the two men with chains 
round their necksy as well as wearing the handcuffs, 
and they were not allowed to go in to see them. 
Mr. Pigott, addressing the magistrate, asked that 
they might be allowed to join their friends, but 
was told it could not be permitted. He then 
asked that all his party might be allowed to be 
together, — evidently fearing some mischief, — but 
this request was also refused ; and Mr. Pigott and 
his son with Mr. Robinson were put in the men's 
prison; while Mrs. Pigott, Miss Duval, and the 
two little girls were put in the quarters provided 
for female prisoners. 

They did not see each other again until the 
afternoon of the next day, — Monday 9th July, — 
when they were summoned from their prison only 
to be escorted to the Governor's yftmen, where 
their friends had already been killed. In the outer 
courtyard they must have passed the bodies of 
the massacred missionaries as they were taken to 

82 Fire and Sword in Shansi 

the inner hall where Yii Hsien was sitting at his 
judgment-seat. All were made to kneel before 
him ; and in reply to a question as to what country 
they belonged, Mr. Pigott answered " England." 
The Governor replied with a derisive laugh, and 
uttered the one word "Beat." The two little 
girls fell on the neck of one of the ladies and 
began to cry bitterly ; but the soldiers (not Boxers) 
immediately fell upon them, wounding all, and 
calling two of their number to fall unconscious to 
the ground. The final order to " Kill " was quickly 
given, and all seven were taken to the central 
courtyard, where they were at once massacred. 
The remains of all the martyrs — both foreigners 
and Chinese — were first stripped of their cloth- 
ing and then dragged by beggars to a vacant 
plot of ground just inside the big south gate of 
the city. There they remained till the following 
day, when they were thrown outside the city on to 
the execution ground, where they were exposed 
to the ravages of wolves and d(^s, and were soon 
undistinguishable from the remains of the many 
criminals who had been executed there. 

Thus ended the most sorrowful chapter in the 
Mission history of T'ai Yiian Fu. 

What would the next be ? 


Travelling southward from T'ai Ylian Fu by 
the main road, the first Mission station we come to 

o ihe Cave Iloiise in the \'illage of Peh Liang Shan 
e Mr and Mrs PicoTT and Party look refuge. 

Courlyard of above House, showing the Entrance to the " mo 
Cave Rooms" (x| occupied by Mr and Mis PicoTT. 

The Spread of Boxerism in Skansi 83 

is Ping Yao H^ien,— ;Sonie_2P__roiles distant, — 
which was in charge of Mr. Saunders of the China 
Inland Mission. 

The Mission premises were attacked on the 
night of 26th June, and the missionaries escaped 
to the y^men. The Mandarin said he could do 
nothi ng to pr otect them, and they then asked that 
they might be iescorted to T'ai Yiian Fu. This 
he promised to do, and they started the next day. 
By noon of the 28th they were within 10 miles 
of that city, when they were met by a native Chris- 
tian, who told them what had happened there 
the day previous; and Mr. Saunders at once 
decided to turn back and try to reach some 
place of safety in the south. After almost 
indescribable hardships he and his party reached 
Hankow, but two of the children and two single 
ladies who accompanied the party died on the 

The day following the Ping Yao riot (27th June) 
there was an outbreak at the Mission station of 
ChiehJEisaiLHsiej!LzTriQ miles southwards^ — ^where 
five ladies had gone in hopes of being out of 
danger. These were the Misses £. French, £. 
Johnson, E. Higgs, E. Gauntlett, and K. 
Rassmussen. When the crowds collected in the 
Mission compound about noon on that day, the 
ladies in hurried consultation decided to go 
t o the ycLme n. The magistrate received them 
iiy kindly, but assured them he had Imperial 

^ For a fiill account of this journey see Martyred MissUnarUs ef 
tk4 CAma Inland Mission, by Marshall Broomhall, B. A. 

84 Fire and Sword in Shansi 

orders not to protect foreigners any longer. He 
strongly advised that they should lose no time in 
fleeing southwards and getting to Hankow or 
some other place of safety. Two of the ladies 
were escorted back to the Mission premises to get 
together a few things necessary for the journey, 
and all remained in the y&men that night. The 
next morning, 28th June, they left under official 
escort — the son of the magistrate himself going 
with them part of the way — and arrived safely at 
Fihg Yang Fu, in the south of the province, after 
some exciting experiences, on Monday morning, 
2nd July. 

As has been already mentioned, Fing YangJFu 
— ^six days' journey south of T'ai Yuan_.Fu — ^was 
near the scene of the first Boxer outbreak in 
Shansi. The missionaries there resident were Mr. 
and Mrs. F. C. H. Dreyer, Miss Hoskyn, Miss A. 
A. Hosk)ni, and Miss R. Palmer. Early in July 
they were joined by Mr. and Mrs. A. Lutley and 
two children ; and now by the Misses E. Higgs, 
E. Gauntlett, K. Rassmussen, E. French, and E. 
Johnson from Chieh Hsiu — ^all of the China 
Inland Mission. Though surrounded by Boxers, 
the local officials managed to guard them for a 
tim.e ; but» when the news of the massacres farther 
north reached them, the Prefect Insisted that they 
must leave for the coast, as he could protect them 
no longer. After many negotiations, a passport 
was promised them ; but when it appeared, it turned 
out to be a convict's transport - order adapted to 
their case ; and, knowing that protest was useless, 

The Spread of Boxerism in Shansi 85 

they had to accept it On 14th July four heavy, 
springless, country carts were provided for them; but 
they were not allowed to leave till after midnight, 
as it was said a m ob was awaiting them outside 
ffi^ gaf^ nf fh^ n'ihy tlils wss qoite ttue; for the 
very next morning they were set upon by a. baud 
f>f a Hor^n ^r mnm ar!"T^ fn^n, who dragged them 
fro0L their carts and threatened to kill them if 
they did not give up their silver. The mission- 
aries could only stand aside and allow their boxes 
to be rifled — ^the escort (I) meanwhile looking on 
quite contentedly. 

The port of Hankow was not reached until 
28th August, after a terrible journey which 
occupied forty-five days. Cooped up in tightly 
covered carts under the scorching July and August 
sun, they were often scarcely able to breathe. Ill- 
ness attacked every member of the party at one 
time or another; and several times when they 
took their temperature they found that all but 
one ranged from lOo"* to I04^ Death, too, 
visited the little band, for, on 3rd August, Mary 
the daughter of Mr. and Mrs. Lutley succumbed 
to an illness brought on by the hardships of the 
journey. On 20th August they were once more 
called upon to pass through deep waters, when the 
only remaining child, Edith, passed quietly away 
in Miss French's arms while travelling along in 
a wheelbarrow. Curious, noisy, unsympathetic 
opwdsji which blocked the doors and windows of 
the small stuflfy rooms in which they were placed, 
were some of the minor trials diey had to endure. 


86 Fire and Sword in Shansi 

Frequently * in perils of robbers," they also had to 
endure the " squeezing " of the underlings of the 
various y&mens; and yet not one word of 
murmuring or regret, but all re-echoing Mrs. 
Atwater's letter : •* I am not sorry for having 
come to China; . I am 6sAy soety I'have d6ne so 

I^li Wu H5ien^ is some 30 miles to the south- 
west of Fing Yang Fu, and on 4th July Mr. 
M^Kie and two ladies fled from this station to a 
village about 27 miles distant, having determined 
to attempt to weather the storm by hiding, rather 
than endeavour to escape to the coast. After 
months of anxious wanderings, constant danger, 
and untold privations, they were at last, on 25 th 
October, escorted by an official and soldiers "T)ack 
to Fing Yang Fu, whence they were subsequently 
sent to the coast. 

A few days after Mr. M'Kie and party left, 
Mr. and Mrs. Duncan Kay with their little girl 
fled from the same station to another village. 
Their sufferings and privations were even greater 
than those of Mr. M'Kie and party. Several 
efforts to save them were made by the native 
Christians, but, alas I all in vain ; and they were 
foully murdered by a band of Boxers on 15th 

In the extreme south of the province is the 
city of Yliin Ch'eng, the centre of a district 
occupied by the members of the Swedish Mission. 
The magistrate (Taot'ai) in chaise there was for- 
tunately somewhat favourably disposed towards 

The Spread of Boxerism in Shansi 87 

foreigners, and on the night of 27th June he 
called two of the missionaries to his y&men and 
urged them and their friends, in the strongest terms, 
to leave the district within two days.' They at 
(Mice took his advice, and all of fhem — twenty- 
six in number — ^eventually reached the coast in 

Starting again from T'ai Ytian Fu we go 
south-west, and after ^ee days' journey come to 
the Uttle town of Hsiao Ih Hsien^ which for some 
years had been occupied as a Mission station by 
the China Inland Mission. Miss Whitchurch 
and Miss Searell were living there alone, and by 
their life and good works had won the approba- 
tion and esteem of not a few. An opium-refuge 
vriddi they conducted had been the means of 
rescuing many of the victims of that habit, a 
number of whom had been converted. But 
Hieir noble life had no influence with the 'Mow 
fellows of the baser sort,** who took up the Boxer 
craze in the hope of loot, if nothing else. They 
were suddenly attacked on 2Sth June; and, 
though the Mandarin went to tiie house and 
drove off the rioters for the time being, the rabble 
saw by his attitude and understood by what he 
said that he would not protect the ladies, and 
early the next morning the house was again 
attacked, and the two defenceless women slowly 
beaten to death. 

Thirty miles north-west of Hsiao Ih is the city 
of Fen Chou Fu, and at the time of the outbreak 
was'^ccupied'Tjy missionaries of the American 

88 Fire and Sword in Shansi 

Board Mission. In 190P there were there 
resident, Rev. E. R. and Mrs. Atwater and two 
children, and Rev. C. W. and Mrs. Price and one 
child. Mr. and Mrs. A. P. Lundgren and Miss 
A. Eldred, all of the C.I.M., were there on a visit 
The first indication of any serious trouble was on 
27th June; but the then Prefect, being friendly 
to oiissionaries, soon quelled the disturbance, and 
continued to protect the foreigners. His sudden 
death, and the appointment of a new Prefect, 
changed the aspect of affairs altogether, and they 
were told they must leave for the coast. They 
begged to be allowed to delay their departure, as 
Mrs. Atwater was expecting shortly to be con- 
fined ; but no compassion was shown them, and 
the demand was repeated that they must hasten 
their departure. Being utterly powerless they 
were obliged to consent, and arrangements were 
made for them to leave on 1 5 th August Four 
country carts were prepared for them, on which 
their goods were packed, and they started with 
some faint hope of reaching a place of safety; 
but had only gone some 7 miles when they were 
met by a band of soldiers who had been in 
hiding, and everyone was cut down and slain.^ 

Two days' journey west of Fen Chou Fu is the 
city of Yung Ning Chou, occupied for the first 
time by missionaries in the early summer of 1 899, 
when Mr. and Mrs. Ogren went to live there, and 
who were there at the time of the Boxer outbreak. 
It was not till the middle of June that Boxer 

* For further details see Mr. Price's Diary ^ pp. 267-291. 

The Spread of fioxerism in Shansi 89 

leaders appeared, and began to stir up the people. 
On 5 th July the missionaries heard of the death 
of the ladies at the neighbouring station of Hsiao 
Ih; and, warned by. thfi...i)fficiaL^i2£. impending 
dange^ they made their escape on the 1 3th. 
Reaching the Yellow River, they with difficulty 
hired a boat to take them some 340 miles, when 
they hoped to be able to escape through the 
province of ShensL They had only gone about 
half the distance, when they were obliged to 
land on account of a dangerous rapid, and at 
once fell into unfriendly hands. From that 
time commenced a series of wanderings and 
privations which would have tried the strongest of 
men. Separated one from another, Mrs. Ogren 
fully believing her husband was dead, they were 
again united in a marvellous way, but Mr. Ogren 
seriously wounded. Eventually they were taken 
to P'ing Yang Fu, which place they reached on 
1 2th October; but two days later Mr. Ogren 
succumbed to his wounds. His wife was then 
alone for ten days, but on the 24th was joined by 
Mr. M'Kie and party, and with tbem eventually 
reached the coast 

South of Yung Ning Chou, and among the 
hills, lies the city of Hsi. Chou. Here Mr. and 
Mrs. Peat and two children,'^ also Miss G. Hurn 
and Miss Edith Dobson, were stationed. On 
2 1st July they were obliged to flee and hide in 
the caves among the mountains. Driven at last 
by hunger, they were compelled to come forth, 
when they were found by the Boxers and dragged 

90 Fire and Sword in Sfaansi 

before the magistrate. Regarded as the off- 
scourings of the earth, they were refused protection, 
^nd were sent from city to city. The officialis in 
some cases endeavoured to befriend them and 
send them to Hankov^, but after weeks of weary 
wandering and imprisonment they were attacked 
by two Boxers 15 miles south of the city of 
Kii Wu. The supposed guard fled . before these 
two men, and all the party were put to death oh 
^Dth August. 

"Nestling among the hills near the western 
borders of Shansi, about 30 miles south of^Hsi 
Chou, is the little city of Ta Ning. The majority 
oTtlie people are simple-hearted folk; and, although 
other parts of the province were ablaze with the 
Boxer craze, peace continued here. Writing long 
before trouble had broken out elsewhere, Miss 
Edith Nathan said — 

" ' I believe we sh all be quite^afe here^ as 
regards Jhe Ta Nirig people, but lif outsiders 
c ome t he case may^ altered.' The outsiders 
3id come, and letters wHicli subsequently came to 
hand showed how the Boxer fury wrought upon 
an otherwise peaceful neighbourhood. On 12 th 
July the three ladies — Miss Edith Nathan, Miss 
Mary Nathan, and Miss Mary Heapman — ^had to 
flee. After long and anxious hiding they were 
at last caught, and on 1 3th August were put to 
death." 1 


Thirty miles south of Ta Ning is the city of 

^ Martyred Missicnaries of the China Inland Mission^ by^ 
Marahall Broomhall, B.A. 

The Spread of Boxerism in Shansi 91 

Qhl Chou, where Mr, and Mrs. Young were 
stationeiJ.' The last letter from them was dated 
' 7th July, in which Mr. Young said, " Here things 
are tolerably quiet. The opposition consists of 
rumours, but we cannot tell how soon things may 
present a sterner aspect. . . . The farmers have 
beenverjr^busy the last few days, and I should 1 
t htnirnSi^ ra in will have a wholesome eflFect 
upon the pe ople ge nerally."" 

1 he next station south is HpJIsin, and was 
occupied by Mr. and Mrs. M'Connell and their 
little boy Kenneth, Miss Burton, and Miss King. 
On 5th July Mr. M'Connell wrote from a village 
in the hills where he and his party had gone for 
the summer : " We came here a week ago. When 
we left Ho Tsin all was well, and the people were 
as fdendly as ever. We have not heard from 
there since we left ; but I am sending a man to- 
morrow. Here we have nice cool weather, and 
the people are friendly. We hear no rumours at 
all, and were so quiet until your letters came." 
. Events must have developed very rapidly, for it 

is now known that on 1 2th July Mr. and Mrs. 
/ Young had joined Mr. M'Connell and party, and 

together they made for the Yellow River, hoping 
to make their way into Shensi. They were 
met by a band of mounted soldiers, who pro- 
fessed they had been sent as escort, and advised 
them to take a bye-road. No sooner were they 
in a quiet place than the would-be escort 
turned on the helpless party and murdered 
tiiem all. 


92 Fire and Sword in Shansi 

Tracing the course of the disturbances from 
T'ai Yiian Fu in a south-easterly direction, we 
come first to the station of T'ai Ku Hsie n. dis- 
tant about 40 miles, which had been occupied by 
missionaries of the American Board for nearly 
twenty years, and not a few converts gathered 
in. Disturbances took place in the neighbourhood 
about the middle of June, and on the 30th it was 
found necessary for the missionaries in the out- 
stations to retreat to the main station at T'ai Ku. 
After this the Boxers became very aggressive, 
and killed not a few of the native Christians in 
the neighbouring villages; ^ut the magi strate 
jnanaged to^jn^^ the 

foreigners. ^ 

■■ Ffoinletters and diaries subsequently recovered 
it is known that during the month of July the 
missionaries were closely confined to their own 
house ; yet the sad tidings reached them of the 
massacre of friends in other places, and they had 
little or no hope of escaping themselves. The 
disquieting rumours in the city increased, and one 
by one the native Christians, hoping to find safety 
in their own homes, left them, until only eight 
remained. On the afternoon of 31st July, while 
they were going about their household duties, and 
without any warning, they suddenly heard the 
terrible cry of " Kill, Kill " ; and, before anything 
could be done, the Boxers, led by soldierSy broke 
into the house and killed all found there, both 
foreigners and Chinese, except three or four of 
the latter who managed to escape. It was 

The Spread of Boxerism in Shansi 93 

afterwards ascertained that the magistrate who 
befrie nded thg ...4nisai pnaries was re moved by the 
Jj QYemo r for a few days, and it was during his 
absence that the massacre occurred. The names 
of those who fell there were — Mr. and Mrs. D. 
H. Clapp, Miss L. Partridge, Miss R. Bird, Mr. 
Williams, and Mr. Davis. 

Five days' journey south-east of T'ai Ku is 
the large prefectural city of Lu An Fu. The 
missionaries there were Mr. and SlrS. "Glover with 
two children, and Miss Gates. As early as 6th 
June there was a riot caused by an idolatrous 
procession, and Mr. Glover determined to take 
his wife and children away, as Mrs. Glover was 
expecting her confinement He left on 9th June, 
purposing to go to Tientsin, but had only reached 
Shtien Teh Fu, some four days* journey, \^en he 
was stopped by the disturbances ; and, after remain- 
ing in that place eleven days, returned to Lu An 
Fu, which he reached on 3rd July. 

Matters had rapidly developed during his 
absence, so that he decided to try the southern 
route through Honan. Miss Gates now accom- 
panied them, and they made a start on 6th July. 
Their troubles began before they got out of the 
city, as they had to pay 1 0,000 cash before bdng 
allowed to pass the gates. The very next day 
they were robbed of everything they had. During 
their journey of more than two months they were 
several times face to face with death. Time and 
again they were miraculously delivered, and 
reached Hankow on 13th August Five days 

94 ^ire and Swco'd in Shansi 

afterwards Mrs. Glover was confined, but the child 
only lived a short time. Mrs. Glover never 
fully recovered, and "entered into rest" on 2Sth 

Thirteen miles from Lu An Fu was the small 
city of^u Ch'§ng_iisien, where Mr. and Mrs. 
E. J. Cooper and two children, Miss Rice, and 
Miss Huston were located. Though anti-foreign 
placards had been posted up in the city,' things 
were comparatively quiet, and the missionaries 
did not know how serious affairs were in the 
province until 5th July, when Mr. Saunders and 
party arrived in their flight from the north. The 
arrival of so many foreigners created quite a stir 
in the city, and on the 7th the Mission premises 
were rioted and the whole party was obliged to 
leave. Though robbed and molested on the way, 
all but one manage^T5^scape from the prbVfnte ; 
but Miss Rice was beaten to death by the road- 
side. Miss Huston received such serious wounds 
that she died two days before reaching Hankow. 
Two of Mr. Saunders' children succumbed to the 
hardships, as also Mrs. E. J. Cooper, The 
survivors reached Hankow on 14th August, forty- 
nine days after leaving P'ing Yao. 

YU Wu, which was occupied by Dr. Hewett, 
lies 30 miles to the north of Lu Ch'eng Hsien, 
and early in July Mr. Barratt of Yo Yang paid 
him a visit On 6th July Dr. Hewett left the 
station to go to Lu Ch'eng to consult the friends 
there . as to the condition of affairs. That same 
night he received a letter from Mr. Barratt saying 

The Spread of Boxerism in Shansi 95 

he was fleeing for safety to a place in the hills, 
and asking him to follow him. Dr. Hewett 
returned to his station the next day, but was 
obliged to seek refuge in the homes of the neigh- 
bouring native Christians, and for one month was 
wandering about from village to village. By that 
time he was so exhausted that he determined to 
give himself up to the local official, resident at the 
neighbouring city of Tuen Liu Hsien. There he 
was taken in on 5 th August and hidden for two 
months, when he was eventually sent under escort 
to Hankow, which place he reached on 6th 

Little is known as to how Mr. Barratt met his 
death. In the letter of 6th July sent to Dr. 
Hewett he says : " An hour ago Deacon Si, who 
knew you in T'ai Yiian Fu, came to tell you of 
the awful things there. The news nearly made 
me faint, but His peace filled, and still does fill, 
my soul. . . , Let us be true to death." Among 
the hills to which he had fled for safety he 
passed away, in consequence of his suffering and 

Yo Yan g Hsien is a small city in the hills, 
situated between Vu Wu Hsien and Fing Yang 
Fu»^ Mr. Woodroffe and Mr. Barratt were the 
resident missionaries ; but about the beginning of 
July the latter had gone to YU Wu, Mr. Wood- 
roffe being left alone. He had to flee on 4th 
July, and for some time wandered about among 
the hills with feet all torn and bruised. The 
last letter from him told of his great hardships, 

96 Fire and Sword in Shansi 

but finished with the words, "We count them 
happy that endure." He was eventually killed 
by the Boxers under circumstances of great 


Tracing the ravages of the Boxers in a northerly 
direction from T'ai Yiian Fu, we come first to Hsin 
ChQU,^ a station some 4 ; miles distant, occu^pTed 
iby the English Baptists. 

The first reliable news of the events of this 
district were brought to the coast by the faithful 
evangelist Chao, who barely escaped with his life. 
A Shantung man, he first went to Shansi in 1882 
with Dr. Richard, and, after he left, spent most of 
his time at Hsin Chou. He was with Mr. Dixon 
and party when they fled from that station on 
29th Ju ne, and it was with difficulty he was 
persua3e3T:o leave them to report their perilous 
position. His home was not reached till 19th 
July; and as, after some six weeks or so, no 
further news had been received from Shansi, he 
willingly offered to return to ascertain all he could, 
well knowing the risk he ran. The perilous 
journey to and fro occupied nearly two months, 
and he brought back with him much valuable 
information. On my return to China in 1900 he 
was my constant companion for eight months, 
and accompanied us on our visit to Shansi, where 

r ihe Loess Mou mains. 

A Temple overlooking ihe T'ai Yllan I'lai 

The Spread of Boxerism in Shansi 97 

he is at present, having taken up his old post at 
Hsin Chou. 

The missionaries there resident were Mr. and 
Mrsr Dixon ^ Mr. and MrsV M*Currach, Miss 
Renautj and Mr. Ennals. When the troubles 
broke out, Mr. and Mrs. Underwood of T'ai Yiian 
Fu were there on a visit They heard of the 
burning of the hospital at T'ai Yiian Fu and 
death of Miss Coombs on the morning of 29th 
June, and decided to flee for their lives. For some 
weeks th gy hid in a cave in the hillside, near 
a village where every ' family except one was 
Christian; and the people did all they possibly 
could for their pastors, but were at last obliged 
to flee for their own lives, as the Boxers found 
out they were befriending the foreigners. The 
missionaries' endured terrible privations, as evi^ 
denced by touching letters written at the time 
and afterwards recovered. 

Their hiding-place having been found out, on 
2 5th July a military official with soldiers arrived 
and promised them a safe escort to the coast By 
that time they had been four or five days with 
little or no food, and so accepted the offer, though 
suspecting mischief. Immediately they reached 
Hsin Chou they were put in .tbe-comjnon, >ail« 
On 8th August a special deputy and ten soldiers 
arrived from T'ai Yiian Fu with secret instruc- 
tions fronTThe Governor, and the missionaries 
were told that they were to be escorted to the 
coast. Four carts were provided for them, and 
long before daylight on the 9th they started on 


98 Fire and Sword in Shansi 

their shorty last journey. They were taken to the 
east gate of the city, where some soldiers were in 
jiiding, and there dragged from their carts " and 
brutally murdered. Their remains were thrown 
outside the city ; but one of the leading scholars 
(not a Christian), who had been on friendly terms 
with Mr. Dixon, paid some beggars to wrap the 
bodies in mats and bury them close to the city 
wall, he himself conducting a short memorial 
service in his own way by burning incense and 
reading a funeral address. 

Six days' journey north of Hsin Chou is the 
large prefectural city of Ta Tun^ F u, occupied by 
missionaries of the China Inland Mission. So far 
as has been ascertained al present, ''It was 
June that the storm first broke ; and the hunted 
missionaries found shelter for a time in the yii0i£^ 
of a friendly Prefect, but not before Mr. and Mrs. 
M*Kie had beerfbadly wounded by stones. . . , _A 
few days later, on 27th June, the helpless little 
band was escorted back to the Mission. premises, 
and a guard placed to protect them. Under 
these painful circumstances a little son was bora 
to Mrs. M^Kie — born to receive a rude and cruel 
welcome from the land of his parents' adoption. 

" By i^tii July the guard had almost disappeared, 
only two men remaining ; and at seven o'clock that 
evening a small official arrived to take the names 
of the foreign inmates. This was not for pur- 
poses of protection, for only an hour later the house 
was surrounded by three hundred hcH'se and foot 
soldiers, and sword and fire soon did their deadly 

The Spread of Boxerism in Shansi 99 

work." The names of the martyred on that day 
were — 

Mr. Stewart M*Kie. 

Mrs. M'Kie. 

Alice M'Kie. 

Baby M'Kie. 

Mr. Charles I'Anson. 

Mrs. TAnson. 

Dora I'Anson. 

Arthur K. TAnson. 

Eva K. TAnson. 

Miss Margaret E. Smith. 

Miss Maria Aspden. 
West of Ta T'ung Fu is another large pre- 
fectural city, So Fing Fiu As early as the 
middle of May, disturbances had begun in the 
neigEbouifng stations occupied by members of the 
Swedisjhi . Holiness Union, and by the 24th of June 
ten members of that Mission, together with three 
belonging to the Christian and Missionary Alliance, 
had gone to So P'lrig Fu for conference and 
mutual protection. By about the end of June the 
Boxers had attacked several Mission stations in 
the neighbourhood, and the officials suggested it 
would be better for all the foreigners to leave. As 
already the jnobjvras .demanding that the missionr 
a ries sh ould be handed over to them to be killed, 
it~waspfdposed that the men should wear hand- 
cuffs as they left the city, to give the people the 
impression they were being sent as prisoners to 
Peking. This was agreed to, and everything was 
ready by the morning of 29th June. Carts were 

lOO Fire and Sword in Shansi 

j; provided, and the whole party set off; bM had no 

' ' "^^ sooner left the city than thwjfl^aca-atta2k^edtlE»y 

a number .of JManchus, who literally stoned them 

tCL death. 

Their names were as follows : — 

Of the Swedish Holiness Union (Associates 
of the China Inland Mission) : 

-Mr. and Mrs. S. A. Persson. 

Miss J. Lundell. 

Mr. E. Pettersson. 

Mr. N. Carle^on. 

Mr. O. A. Larsson. 

Miss J. Engyall. 

Mr. G. E. Karlberg. 

Miss M. Hedlund. 

Miss A. Johansson. 
Of the Christian and Missionary Alliance : 

Mr. and Mrs. C. Blomberg and child. 


In the extreme north of Shansi and over the 
Mongolian border, quite a number of stations 
were occupied by members of the Christian jand 
Missiftnar)'^ Allianrr 

Though it is known that thirty-six of their 
number (including fifteen children) suffered 
martyrdom, few details are as yet to hand. 
The two following letters — hitherto unpublished 
— will be of melancholy interest, and throw 

The Spread of Boxerism in Shansi loi 

some light upon the terrible suflTerings which 
the martyrs of that district had to suffer : — 

Translation of a Letter from Chia Jen, of 
the American Alliance Mission at Kwei Hwa, 

to His Excellency the Minister of the 
United States at Peking. 

" Sir, I beg to submit details of the murder of 
the foreign missionaries at Kwei Hwa. Between 
the 2 8th of the fifth moon and the 4th daj;; of the 
j^ivth m^^n, in the twenty-sixth year of Kwang Hsii, 
the rising of the Boxers began, and the foreign 
missionaries decided to flee for safety. On this 
account they mortgaged their two compounds 
for Tls. 800 (one for Tls. 500 and one for 
Tls, 300), together with the printing nffire, 
where printing was done in three languages, — 
Chinese, English, and Mongolian, — having three 
large presses, fifty odd rolls of white paper, and 
all other apparatus, worth over Tls. 3000, as 
well as the belongings of twelve people, in- 
cluding brass, iron, and wooden articles; books, 
clothes, furniture, trunks, etc., worth altogether 
some thousand taels or more. All of this was 
mortgaged to the Erh Fu of Kwei Hwa, named 
Hsii (given name below), it being clearly stated 
for the amount of Tls. 800, white silver, less 
Tls. 200 discount; the nett sum received being 
Tls. 600. A period of two years was fixed 
upon for the redemption of the property. If 
after the expiration of this period he should not 
be willing to wait longer, Hsii Erh Fu was to be 

I02 Fire and Sword in Shansi 

allowed to take the boxes, clothes, etc. ; and as 
to the printing-office, machinery, etc., he should 
be allowed to dispose of it as he might choose. 

" Of the twelve missionaries, the chief was an 
American named Ai Li Shun, having a wife and 
two sons and one daughter — five in all ; the 
remainder consisted of two men, three women, 
and two children, who were all Swedes. On the 
5 th day of the sixth moon in the night they left 
the city and went to a place called Ko I Keng, 
90 li from Kwei Hwa. On the 17th of the 
same moon they left this place and went into 
Mongolia, and on the night of the 19th they 
were attacked by robbers, who took more than 
Tls. 1000 of silver, seventeen trunks, one organ, 
three carts, over five hundred catties of rice-flour, 
and the clothes and belongings of thirteen people. 
(There was one Chinese in the company.) They 
were robbed seven times. Those who stole the 
siiygl!JW£££j^hft .soldjers of Wang Ta Ren, under 
aji^officer named JLi^^^^ji^ SKariK He was 

the leader. There were five other soldiers — six in 
all. /Those who stole the rice-flour were coolies. 
On the 28th of the seventh month the Taot'ai of 
the place, Cheng Wen Ching, ordered Kwo Er 
Fu with the Boxers, and Cheng Ta Ren, the 
military commander, to take soldiers and kill 
the Tieh Ko Tan Kou people — a Roman Catholic 
Mission. On the ist of the eighth moon these 
missionaries were killed. 

/^ne hundred and sixty H south-west of that 
city there is a place called To Ko To under 

The Spread of Boxerism in Shansi 103 

its jurisdiction. The church was burned, and 
in it three Swedish missionaries, together with 
their clothes, boxes, goods, etc. They also killed 
one Chinese evangelist This was done by the 
'Boxers,' the officials winking at it 

" West of this city the missionaries of three 
places, ten adults and five or six children, all 
in flight, were robbed and killed at a place called 
Ta Sheh Tai , under the jurisdiction of Ts9J[»a 
Chil A military officer did the killing, the Cheng 
T'ai of Ta T'ung. I do not know his name. At 
Yang Kao district city, under the jurisdiction of 
Ta Tung, a man and wife and two children were 
killed, and their money, clothes, etc., were either 
stolen or destroyed. Under the jurisdiction of 
Yang Mao, at a place called Tung Ching Ts'i, a 
female missionary was ]cilled, and her goods dis- 
posed of as mentioned above. The guilt of the 
murders of these two places rests upon the 
magistrate of Yang Kao. 

" At So Fing Fu thirteen Swedes were killed, 
three belonging to the Alliance Mission, and ten 
to the China Inland Mission. The chapel was 
burned and goods destroyed. In this case the 
Prefect and magistrate treacherously employed 
the • Boxers ' to do the killing. The magistrate's 
name is Kuo, a relative of the Kuo £r Fu of 
Kwei Hwa. In all these cases the Chinese 
Christians were either murdered or imprisoned. 
Some were robbed, and their houses burned ; and 
up to the present they still wander homeless in 
mbery inexpressible." 

I04 Fire and Sword in Shansi 


"Si Wan Tzu, 24M //cv. 190a 



"About the litLJune alLtbe. JVfanHarins in the 
district of Kwei Hwar practised ..tbe. .rites of ^the 
Boxers. Notices were placed in all jjublic places, 
and were sent to the smaller villagesi Jy runners. 
The substance of the notices was, that all railways, 
telegraphs, churches, and European houses were 
to be.. destroyed — that &11 Europeans and native 
Chrigtians were Jo be ..killed. Qn the 2nd. of July 
an edict of the Governor, Yu Hsien, ordered all 
Chinese merchants, labourers, mechanics, etc., to 
practise as Boxers. The Taot'ai of Kwei Hwa 
Ch'eng passed on these orders to all the Mandarins 
in his jurisdiction, and Europeans were threatened 
in all the districts. Thereupon we five missionaries 
— two Belgians, one Hollander, and two Chinese 
— left at 10 p.m. on 4th July to take refuge in the 
mountains of Hou Ma, 60 li north of Kwei Hwa 
Ch'eng, and arrived at noon of the 5 th at the foot 
of the hills. All the villages en route were full of 
Boxers, who threatened us, crying, * Let us eat 
the brains of the Europeans; let us drink their 
blood.' Happily we were armed, and the Boxers 
had not commenced their exploits. 

* N,B, — Several of the places mentioned cannot be localised, 
as the names are given in Roman letters and not in the Chinese 

The Spread of Boxerism in Shansi 105 

** On our arrival at Hou Ma, runners went out in 
all directions, and, after eight days of comparative 
quiet, native Christian refugees b^an to arrive. Out 
of three hundred and forty-seven villages in which 
we had converts none escaped the Qpxers, who jvere 
helped by the soldiers, and, I may say^ by all the 
C£inese Ir6m the highest official Jto tte loacest 
begga r. Men, women, and children wished to dip 
their hands in foreign blood ; and even the heathen 
Chinese who had worked for us, or who had eaten 
our food, were pitilessly massacred. The Mandarins 
of Kou Lin Korh promised a reward for the killing 
of a European or of a native missionary. More than 
fifteen hundred of our Christians. wfire_kiUed. with 
iSiexampled criiel^T— Our houses and the houses 
of the native Christians were pillaged and burnt. 
Even now about three thousand of our Christians 
of Tou Met are fugitives, without shelter, food, or 
clothing — exposed to the rigours of a Mongolian 
winter. The massacre commenced on 6th July, 
and lasted for sgs^esat-weeks. 
"** ^'TNext we learnt that the Protestant missionaries 
of To Ch'eng and Kwei Hwa Ch'eng, whom the 
Er Fu of Kwei Hwa had sheltered for some time 
in his y^men, had been sent in June with seven 
camels and 700 or 800 taels of silver towards 
Ourga, and robbed by their escort of their camels, 
600 taels of silver, and the greater part of their 
baggage, and after wandering about for some 
weeks they were destitute about 100 li from us. 
We sent to fetch them, and on the 7th August 
ten of them arrived. On the 9th another arrived 


Fire and Sword in Shansi 




with his wife and a newborn child. On the loth 
another missionary's wife gave birth to a daughter. 
The party then was three men of thirty and forty 
years of age, with their wives, one unmarried lady, 
and seven children — all Swedes. They told us that 
after having been robbed by their escort they had 
been robbed by other soldiers, who took their remain- 
ing silver and baggage ; and then by the beggars, 
who took their remaining provisions and clothes 
(habits n^cessaires). After more than a month of 
great misery, our messengers had found them and 
brought them in to us at Tieh Ko Tan Kou. 

" From the west we heard that the soldiers of 
the Taot*ai with those from Pao T'ou, Tsa.La 
Ch'i| e tc.. had destroyed several ofTilgr. Hamer*s 
stations; and that he had finally assembled his 
people in the episcopal residence of lirh _ Shih 
TS^'Ti/^^TTiey resisted t ^O^ attac ks, and Mgr. 
Hamer then sent the missionaries to San To Ho, 
ten days west. The place was again attacked on 
20th July and taken. Between eight hundred 
and one thousand Christians were killed; more 
than a hundred women and children were carried 
off; the church, houses, etc., were burnt, and the 
remaining Christians driven off. Mgr. Hamer 
was taken by the soldiers to To To Ch'eng, where 
the Mandarin Li delivered him over to the tender 
mercies of his soldiers. The latter took him for 
three days through the streets of To To, every- 
body being at liberty to torture him. All his 
hair was pulled out, and his fingers, nose, and ears 
cut off. After this they wrapped him in stuff 

The Spread of Boxerism in Shansi 107 

soaked in oil, and, hanging him head downwards, 
set fire to his feet His heart was eaten by two 

" On the 24th July we learnt from our church 
caretaker at Kwei Hwa Ch'eng, who had taken to 
flight when our buildings there were burnt, that 
a European^ who had come with an escort from 
Pao Von vid^ Tsa La Ch'i toXwci Hwa Ch'eng, 
Itiad just been killed by the Tao^ai's qr>lHt>yQ qIq^ 
to the y^men. Some of our people said that be 
was one of "Itlgr. Hamer's missionaries, but others 
said that he was an Englishman or American 
who had come from Ning Hsia, a:nd who made 

" One of our Christians, who is now at Si Wan 
Tzu, named Ma Wei, was present when this 
European was killed (on the 2pth or 21st July), 
but kept at a distance, not daring to approach. 
He saw six or seven of the Taot'ai's soldiers con- 
duct him, with his hands tied behind him, to a 
place a little distance from the y^men. Then 
they drew their swords and cut great gashes all 
over his body, particularly on his arms and legs. 
After about half an hour his head was cut off, and 
the body buried close to the y^men. According 
to Ma Wei, this European had come from Pao 
T'ou with an escort on horseback. The Taot'ai 
received him civilly, but ordered him to return 
to (name illegible), as war had broken out. While 
signing a paper he was seized from behind and his 

* This evidently refers to the late Captain Watts Jones, R.E., 
who was murdered at Kwei Hwa Ch'eng. 

io8 Fire. and Sword in Shansi 

arms tied. Another account was that he was 
murdered by his escort just outside the y^men, 
and not seized inside, and that the Taot'ai him- 
self was not there. 

" The Taot'ai also sent soldiers to attack Tai 
Hai^ where two of our priests — Pere Heirman and 
Mallet — and about a thousand Christians lived. 
The latter had already repulsed three Boxer attacks, 
and the soldiers did not dare to attack. Treachery 
was resorted to, and a number of carts and an escort 
sent with assurances that they should be conducted 
safely to Peking — the Mandarin stating that the 
Taot'ai himself awaited the missionaries at Ning 
Yuan. They had hardly gone a mile when they 
saw their churches burning behind them, while the 
Mandarins, seated on the roof of a house, looked 
on laughing. The native Christians were then 
forced to recant, or were put to death. The 
missionaries were taken to the Taot'ai at Kwei 
Hwa Ch'eng. The Taot'ai pretended to arrange 
about their return to Europe, but on leaving 
the y^men they were seized by soldiers and 
Roxers, who put thenL to death. 

*^The Taot'ai then called in his troops and sent 
them against us at Tieh Ko Tan Kou in the Hou 
Ma district. We numbered four priests, fourteen 
Swedes, and sixteen hundred Christians. I went 
away to gather in our people from a station to the 
north, thinking that we should not be attacked. 
I was deceived, as during my absence on the 
22nd August the place was attacked by thirteen 
hundred troops in three columns. The attack 

The Spread of Boxerism in Shansi 109 

commenced at noon, and by four o'clock the 
village was destroyed. The soldiers were armed 
with Mausers, while our people had only thirty 
guns, three being of European make. Thirty-six 
soldiers were killed — two of them leaders. P^res 
Dobbe, Abbelos, and Tylman, and the Swedish 
women and children, were killed or burned in the 
church. Two of the Swedish missionaries were 
killed with swords, and the third was beheaded 
next day in a neighbouring village. The re- 
mainder of the Christians took to flight I heard 
the news from the fugitives, and then left with 
a hundred refugees for Tsi I Sou, now a large 
Christian village, still menaced by the Taot'ai. 
This place had not been attacked by the soldiers, but 
had beaten off an attack made by fifteen hundred 
Boxers. The Taot'ai who has massacred so many 
Europeans is called Cheng, and arrived at Kwei 
Hwa Ch'eng about the middle of June. He is 
still persecuting Christians in some districts, though 
he has distributed grain to them in another." 

From the foregoing it will be seen that the 
outbreaks in Shansi were almost simultaneous, 
and midoubtedly directly due to the initiativje of 
^ one man — Yii Hsien, the Governor of the province. 
That any missionaries escaped at all was owing 
to the friendliness and foresight of other officials, 
who saw what injury was likely to come to their 
country by the slaughter of innocent and helpless 
foreigners. These men were more enlightened 
than their fellows ; and if the events of 1 900 are 

no Fire and Sword in Shansi 

not to be repeated, it behoves the Christian Church 
to at once take steps to seek to dispel the dark- 
ness and ignorance still remaining, by sparing 
neither men nor means, in order that the " Light 
of the Glorious Gospel " may illuminate the sadly 
misnamed " Celestial Empire. " 




The small Jigutts at ths right-hand top comer denote the amount . 

paid for the certificate. In this cctse the sum paid was tjso \ 

cash, the equivalent ofahout 4s, joT. 

The lettering in the top panel is a notification from the Ydmen 0/ * 

the district of Yang ChU Hsien, I 

The ri^'hand column gives the date — ( The reign of) Kwang litsii, 
the sdthyear, 6th moon, a^h day {ststhjuly tgoo). 

The large characters in the centre column indicate that the holder . 

has ** renounced the religion in obedience to the officuil" and ' 

the smcUl chanscters at the side of the centre column give the ^ 

number in the famify — ** all told, mcde and female, seven 1 

'ptouths'** {persons). I 

7^ left-hand column contains the name of the holder: **the above \ 

is given to Kuoju {or, the scholar JCuo) of the village of I as a \ 

licensed* < 

The characters in red at the left-hand side of the certificate state that \ 

*' the least extortion is not permitted " | 

The red squares are the official seals, and the red dcuhes denote thai \ 

the details have been cheched and registered. 

oraers to recover tne remains ot those massacred 
at the former place were not given till December. 



After the Massacres 

THE taking of Peking, leading to the flight of 
the Court, appears to have opened the eyes 
of the Dowager Empress to the fact that she had 
made a mistake, for on reaching T'ai Yuan Fu 
in September she issued an edict forbidding the 
Boxers to drill ; and affairs began to improve 
a little. 

Already, oniStluAugpst (tke day after the 
relief of Pektng)^ the acting Governor, in the 
absence of the terrible Yii Hsien, issued a pro- 
clamation saying that all Christians who would 
leave the Church should be giyen a certifica te 
which would protect them from the extortion 
of the y^men underlings (who had been fleecing 
them) and the persecutions of the Boxers. Being 
surrounded on all sides by those who were ready 
to take advantage of their distress, many were led 
to apply for these certificates, and all who did so 
were regfarded as having recanted. 

The Court remained in T*ai Yiian Fu till xst 
OctobfiTi and then moved on to Hsi An Fu ; but 
orders to recover the remains of those massacred 
at the former place were not given till December. 


1 1 2 Fire and Sword in Shansi 

Having been exposed to the ravages of wolves 
and dogs for nearly six months, it is little wonder 
that nothing could be recognised ; but the sur- 
viving Christians gave the names in Chinese of 
those who had been killed, the requisite number 
of coffins were provided, and something (mostly 
cotton-wool) put in to represent the remains! 
These were then placed in a temporary mat-shed, 
outside the south gate of the city. 

The next step in the way of reparation was to 
grant a little relief to some of the Christians who, 
having lost their ^11, were likely to perish from 
starvation and cold. The distribution of this relief, 
being left in the hands of the local officials and 
their underlings, was not carried out very satis- 
factorily, and many of the most needy were 
neglected, as is shown by the following letter 
written by the Christian photographer Chu oLIJai 
Yiian Fu in February 1901, ana^^wRIcnjT received 
when in Pao Ting Fu in Meu-ch. 


" Respectful greetings to Pastor Yeh Sheo Chen. 
This year Shansi has encountered great suffering. 
We should thank the Lord's mercy that we are 
still alive. We also thank the Lord that you and 
your family did not meet death in Shansi. ^Tlie 
whole number of Western people who died in T'ai 
Yi ian F u was fort2^;siXj^,,^,Jt3KfilKe_Eren^ of 

E nglish, old a nd^^oung-, xneQ^and..wQinen, thirty- 
foun Miss Coombs was burned to death. X>t 
tEe'rest, at Hsin Chou eight lost their lives ; at 

After the Massacres 


T'ai Kuy six ^ at Fen Chou Fu. ten ; at Hsiao I] 
Hsien^two; at P'i ng Yang Fu and surroundiiig 

As io other places, I do not 
know. In the eleventh moon a deputy of the 
Governor named Wu coffined and buried the re - 
mains of the missionaries in all the districts. The 

ipvprfily in 
number of those who 
perished amounting t o one hundred and s l= ^ vf^ntv 
n^ nnf* hUflijrpH jind eighty. After . these places 
comc^.Hsio ChoiyiGi^QT^sien^ Ting Hsianj;, Fan 
Szu, Tai Chou, and adjoining districts, in which 
more than a hundred persons wetie. killed. 

"in these districts the homes were looted, 
the houses burned, the land sold by order of their 
respective villagers; and~"iHe\r l^ere ^Tiried and 
co mpelle d to provide tneatricals and offerings to 
id^dSk Although the other districts of Wen Shui, 
Chao Cheng, Ping Yao, Fen Chou Fu, and neigh- 
bourhood suffered less severely, they were fined, 
fleeced, and oppressed by their fellow -villagers 
until compelled to flee in all directions, and are 
now reduced to extreme poverty. 

" From the sixth moon, when trouble began, to 
the end of the seventh moon, when Yii Hsien left, 
we suffered persecution ; and from the ei^Mh "^Q9JJj 
wh^n G^v^m^i; H*?! ^^'^ nfli^f^, to the present 
time (o ne half-yea r) only two edicts for the 
protection of the Christians have appeared ; and 
these were false, as the officials acted as if they 
had not been issued, and the people did not dread 
the threatened punishments. They continue to 


114 Fire and Sword in Shansi 

^ '■pgak i^f ttH*"killinc of ^v>f<o^'Qr>c and foreig^ners as 
a pleasure. The looted property ot Christians is 
publicly sold on the streets, no one prohibiting. 
Thr^,offiffiab regard the Christians (Chinesie)..9.s a 

\ha^^JXLJtii£i^js^!.>4s^^^ Up to the 

present there has been no official examination into 
the looting and killing of Christians, the idea of the 
officials being that this is what Christians ought to 
suffer. At the capital and the outside districts 
Christians and inquirers have certainly starved to 
death ; and even at present those who were burned 
out of the hospital premises in T'ai Yiian Fu 
have nothing to eat I myself had thirty hundred- 
weight of millet, and of this I distributed twenty 
hundredweight among the Christians, and sold the 

*jQri the 1 3 th of the sixth moon the missionaries 
were murdered, and on the 14th my house was 
completely looted and my whole family scattered. 
On the same day the houses of Wang Chang Ping 
(of the boot shop) and Tien Shu Wang (of the 
medicine shop) were both looted, the windows and 
doors of their houses burned, and then occupied by 
tl^p gpldiers of Sun g Chinp , who daily tore down 
other parts of the house for firing ; and then used the 
houses as stables, thus ruining them completely. 
During the ninth, tenth and eleventh moons I 
frequently met the Christians, and know that many 
had neither food nor clothes. I obtained from 
non-Christian friends one hundred odd strings of 
cash, and am now reduced to extremities myself. 
In the twelfth moon the districts of Yang Chii 

After the Massacres 115 

and T'ai Ku were relieved by the officials with food 
sufficient for one month's use. In other districts 
no date has been fixed for such relief. When I 
hear the Christians recounting their sufferings, 
there is nothing to do but weep together. I now 
beg the pastor to send by telegram or letter in- 
structions to the official of Yang Chii district direct- 
ing him to pay out from the 1 000 taels in his hands 
(belonging to the English Baptist Mission) certain 
sums for the relief of the extreme needs of the Chris- 
tians in each district. Also please ask the benevo- 
lent people of the Church to quickly subscribe and 
send funds for the relief of our present distress. 

'* I can at present obtain no reliable news. 
Everyone says peace is declared. W Hl th e 
soldiers of your nation reallv ^^orn^ fn g}|^|^^§[ nr ^ ^ r^ ^ 
<^^. ff PQt- the ignoranL. people here can by no 
means be controlled . If the sbTSIers ^corft67"Hie 
^ff\^ji?i\fl ^{ Shanyj shoTild be .instaieted to issue' 
proclamat ions in every place in forming the people^ 
t hSUbcy i o al y ra am» ewU fi C ftij jit . Qf ChurrJi affairs, 

and that the fereign.,??Qlf1iRrs wUi4>ot--nffend"(the 

PfifflSJsIl^^&S-J^fijy J^^ that they will pay for 
all th ey take, and certainly will not disturb the 
GQuntiy ; apd the people, must attend (quietly) to 
theilJlgual affair^^ndl,npt fear. If proclamations 
a re t o be issued before the foreign tro6p§ cume t o 
settle the affairs of the Church, or if there is any 
other method of managing the matter, please let 
me know, so that I may not be always thinking 
about these things. 

"At present there are four girl pupils who 


\ - 

Ii8 Fire and Sword in Shansi 

close to the famous mountain of Wu T'ai, within 
90 miles of T'ai Yiian Fu. Notwithstanding this, 
the people of Shansi had made up their minds 
that foreign troops would never be able to enter 
their province. Had they not got the redoubtable 
General Sung Ching, eighty years of age ? Then 
they had their high mountain ranges, and above 
all they had their brave local militia ! 

So carefully were the main passes guarded that 
all cart traffic to and from the province was 
completely suspended, and only a few travellers 
on foot managed to pass the barriers. The few 
who ventured to travel were most carefully searched 
to see if they had an3rthing to show they were 
connected with foreigners, and for a time only 
those who could produce their card or give a 
satisfactory account of themselves were allowed to 
proceed. Even some native scouts sent by the 
Germans, disguised as beggars, were not allowed to 
pass the patrols. 

Thus things continued until about the middle 
of Ap«i*-I90i, when the Grerman General (von 
Kettler) at Pao Ting Fu received orders from 
Count von Waldersee at Peking to prepare for an 
advancft- to thft^bcM«ierL.'af ShansC It appeared 
that the Chinese General in charge of the troops 
about the Ku Kwan Pass would not only not obey 
the orders of his own superiors and retire beyond 
the border as previously agreed upon, but was 
constantly strengthening his position ; and Count 
von Waldersee had decided that he must be 
driven back. Having received his orders, General 

After the Massacres 119 

von Kettler at once began to make preparations, 
and the advance commenced on UthApcil* 

Not wishing to go by the main road, which 
was practically occupied by the French, a small 
mountain pass by way of Ping Shan had to be 
followed, which made transport by waggon most 
difficult. Notwithstanding this, the passes were 
reached and taken on 25 th April. At the last 
moment the French General (Bailloud) had 
received permission from his superior in Peking 
to advance, but was just a day too late ; as when 
he finally advanced to the Ku Kwan Pass he met 
— not the Chinese, but — ^the returning Germans, 
who had forced that barrier and were on their 
way back. Though the Germans came in sight 
of Chinese troops at five different passes, at only 
one was -any real opposition offered; and there 
they lost one officer and eight men killed, and 
two officers and forty-three men wounded. The 
defeated Chinese troops, fearing that they would 
be followed by the foreign soldiers, hastily re- 
treated, looting and pillaging their own people as 
they went; carrying off not only money and 
goods, but even young women and girls, together 
with a large number of horses, mules, donkeys, 

The news of the defeat soon reached T'ai Yiian 
Fu, and so great was the consternation there that 
about five hundred acting and expecting officials 
at once fled with their families to what they con- 
sidered places of greater safety. The Governor, 
not knowing that both the Germans and French 

I20 Fire and Sword in Shansi 

were on their way back to Pao Ting Fu, immedi- 
ately called for Sh^n Taot'ai and asked him what 
plan could be adopted to prevent the foreign 
troops advancing on T'ai Yiian Fu. " You must 
at once follow my advice," said Shdn. " Yes, — 
yes, what is it?" replied the Governor. "You 
must immediately invite the Protestant mission- 
aries back to the province to settle .thdJiafiairs, 
4vlule t will go to meet the foreiga troopsy^and try 
to persuade them to go back." The Governor 
agreed to this, and the following telegram was 
despatched to Rev. Dr. Richard through the 
Shanghai Taot'ai: — 

Telegram to Shanghai Taofai. 

"In Shansi there are no Protestant mission- 
aries at present, and therefore we have no means 
of settling the missionary troubles. We have 
decided to ask Rev. Timothy Richard, who was 
long a missionary here, to come to Shansi. Please 
translate our telegram, and send him, and greatly 
oblige, — Shansi Governor, Ts'en Ch'un HsUan." 

"To THE Rev. Timothy Richard. 

" Dear Sir, — Last year the Boxers arose 
everywhere in Shansi, and the Christians suffered 
widely at their hands. This was the fault of 
the local officials and their underlings, and the 
Chinese Government is extremely grieved about 
it I have been ordered to be the Governor, 
and, in obedience to instructions, am to settle all 
the missionary troubles. Being quite ignorant of 


Taot'ai Sn£N Tun Ho, Head of the Foreign Bureau, T'ai Yiian Fu, 1901-190Z. 

After the Massacres 121 

these afiairs, and fearing that I shall not be able 
to settle matters properly, but perhaps increase 
them, I memorialised the Throne to appoint Lao 
Nai Shuen of Board of Rites, the Taof ais Shen 
Tun Ho, Wei Han, and Prefect Lu Tsung Siang, 
to come to Shansi to manage these missionary 
affairs. Shen Tun Ho has already arrived. As 
there is not a single Protestant missionary in 
Shansi, we have no means of consulting them as 
to what to do, and therefore we are in extreme 

'* We have heard that you are eminent for 
being fair in all your dealings with China, and, 
having been in Shansi before, all the people 
believe in you as altogether upright Both 
officials and people are unanimous in this report. 
Last winter you made inquiries about the 
Christians, and thus we know that you are "still 
interested in this province, for which we are very 
glad. ^MfitfiOyci'^ when |he^ ^^l^hkf^J*^^ settled, 
then trade will rev^iye again; th^reibre^. according 
to wSterrT custom, I beg^ tjbat. you^s houtd- eome 
^iTcommissloner to settle the missiooaiy and 
^cpm§e£uaIl''iroubIes of Shansi. We have long 
known of your great kindness of heart, and 
therefore I beg of you not to decline; then 
indeed it will be a happy day for us. Whenever 
you leave, please wire, and we will send civil and 
military officials to meet you. But if you cannot 
possibly come, please recommend some other good 
man to come to Shansi to help us. Still, I greatly 
hope you will be able to come. I have also asked 

122 Fire and Sword in Shansi 

Sh6n Taot'al to write a letter to invite you. — With 
great respect, I am, yours very truly, 

(Signed) «Ts'EN Ch'UN HsOan." 

It is significant to note that this telegram was 
received by Dr. Richard within four days of the 
taking of the peases by the Germans. At the 
same time the Governor sent a telegram to Li 
Hung Chang and Prince Ch'ing at Peking, asking 
them to use their influence with the British Minister 
and get him to wire to Dr. Richard asking him 
to proceed at once to Shansi. 

In response to this invitation Dr. Richard 
arrived in Peking on 14th May, and at once had 
interviews with the* Chinese and some of the 
foreign Plenipotentiaries. He also saw the lead- 
ing Protestant and Roman Catholic missionaries, 
in order to find out what was being done for the 
settlement of missionary troubles in the province 
of Chihll On 29th May Dr. Richard, Dr. 
Atwood (American Board), and myself had an 
interview with Li Hung Chang, and presented the 
fbllo\yiag plan ef regulations for the^.sfilddemfiaLQf 
ftlission troubles Jn. Shansi: — 


'^ " I. In every district there are many who should 
according to law be executed for having killed 
] h \ 1' y' suid injured the Christians; but as they were 

encouraged to do so by the officials and deceived 
by the Boxers, we would not wish that all should 
be so punished, but only the leader in each 

f r 

• 7 

After the Massacres 123 

district, as a warning to others ; and even in his 
case we would suggest he be leniently dealt with, 
if the Governor approves and recommends. 

" 2. ^"^ liinrf ^^'^ ggP^ .^"JP^^PA*^ joined 
together to injure t he ChnstiaAfin. though they 
escape the extreme penalty of the law they 
cannot say they are without fault, and those who 
pillaged the Christians should be fined for the 
support of those made orphans and widows last 

" 3. The whole province should be fined the 
sum of Ji« 5i^n r^n f/**^"*- ({^^ir^^}i to be paid 
in ten yearly instalments. But this money should 
not be for the foreigners or for the Christians, but 
for the opening of schools throughout the province, 
where thr ^""n*? tf \]\r r^ '1^ r * ^f*TT^ ■*'^"T 
obtain useful knowledge, and sQ-wotdd' not be 
deceived " agaTff " (as " last year). These schools 
sKouTJ be ^uridef'^the charge of one Chinese and 
one foreigner. 

"4. In every place where Christians were 
murdered a monument should be erected, stating 
clearly how the Boxers originated, and that the 
Christians were killed without cause. 

'^ 5. In some cases the missionaries of the five 
Protestant societies (in Shansi) have either all 
been killed or returned to their own country, so 
that these societies cannot all send missionaries 
back at once; but when they do return they 
should be suitably received by the officials, 
gentry, and people, who should also apologise 
(for the deeds of last year)« 

124 ^^^^ ^^^ Sword in Shansi 

" 6. If the difficulty of the Church is to be 
settled permanently, the Chinese officials should 
be instructed to treat both Christians and non- 
Christians alike. If Christians disobey the law, 
they should be treated according to law ; but if 
(on the other hand) they are worthy, they should 
be promoted to office. Wherever this plan has been 
adopted from ancient times to the present, it has 
not failed to pacify (the country). If this plan is 
not adopted, I fear there will be continued trouble. 

" 7. When the present troubles are settled, a 
list of both leaders and followers of the Boxers 
should be kept in the y^mens ; and if they again 
trouble the Christians, they should be severely 
punished and not forgiven." 

[With regard to clause three, when it is 
remembered how much is annually spent on 
theatricals, etc., the sum mentioned will be seen 
to be very small indeed. For each year the sum 
would only be j^TO Op, and this distributed over 
! .^ the whole province. Ialfe?distri(Qjt,of Hsin Chpu 
*^H ^v^^ '^7 alone (comprising three hundred and sixty villages), 

more than this is annually spent on theatricals; 
and, what with the entertaining of friends and 
other incidentals, the sum is about doubled* .. In 
ricK drsfricts, such as T'ai Ku and Ping Yao, far 
more than the ;f 7000 is annually spent on such 
entertainments. When the schools suggested are 
in operation and the people realise the benefits 
they confer on them, it is probable they will come 
forward and voluntarily subscribe far more than 

After the Massacres 125 

is now suggested, for the establishment of other 
schools. (Seepage 165.) 

In the foregoing propositions nothing was said 
as to indemnity for the destroyed Mission build- 
ings or personal property of missionaries, as these 
matters were in the hands of the Ministers repre- 
senting the different Powers.] 

Li Hung Chang received us in foreign fashion 
by sliaking RSLAds ; and the room in which we found 
him was furnished partly in European and partly 
in Chinese style. Physically he was very weak, 
and had two servants to support him while stand- 
ing; but his mind was clear and active. Dr. 
Richard had often met him before. He asked 
Dr. Atwood and myself how long we had been in 
China, and in what province. By leading questions 
he then gave me the opportunity of telling him 
how the Shansi people had been noted for their 
quietness up till last year, and how the Boxer 
outbreak began soon after the arrival of Yii Hsien 
as Governor. He was quite anxious, too, to hear 
all I could tell him of the burning of our hospital 
and tbfijaigssfMCCg, .ofJije aussionaries at T'ai Yuan 
Fu. "And were they killed in front of the 
y^men?" he asked. "Such is the statement of . ^l y\,u 
men who say they were eye-witnesses," I replied. 
'^SHS^jJasTTfiCT^ present?** Of 

course there was but one answer to that — " Yes " ; 
aM tfe exclaimed, " Abominable 1 " Throughout 
IieTStened most attentively and sympathetically, 
getting me to continue by further questions when 
I stopped, lest I should be wearying him. 

126 Fire and Sword in Shansi 

" Well then," he said, after he had questioned 
us, " what have you come about to-day ? " Dr. 
Richard then handed to him the suggestions for 
the settlement of Mission troubles in Shansi. He 
read them through most carefully, called for a 
pen, and only marked one sentence of which he 
disapproved. Having finished reading he said, 
*' Yes, the proposals are very good, but I Jear^4he 
P€Pple;,Qf-Sbansi are. . too pgor ,.to omry Bome , of 
them out." Dr. Richard and he then had a long 
and most interesting talk on the settlement of 
affairs concerning the Christians in China generally. 
" Well now, what would you propose ? " he asked. 
Dr. Richard wisely replied that it was too wide 
a subject to answer off-hand, but he would put 
his proposals in writing. Throughout the whole 
interview (which lasted an hour and a half) he 
evinced great interest in the subjects we brought 
before him ; and Dr. Richard said he had seldom 
seen him so much in earnest. 

Dr. Richard himself was unable to go to 
Shansi, but the representatives of four societies 
working in that province met him in Peking, and 
after consultation decided to go in response to the 
invitation of the Governor. The party consisted 
of Messrs. D. E. Hoste, A. Oirr Ewing^ C. H. 
Tj^der, and Ernest Taylor of the China Inland 
Mission; Mr. Moir Duncan and Dr. Creasy 
Smith of the Baptist Mission ; Dr. Atwood of the 
American Board ; and myselfc^ The Governor had 

^ Major Pereira, Grenadier Guards, accompanied us in an un- 
official capacity. 






















After the Massacres 127 

sent a special envoy or Wei Yiian to Peking to 
act as escort ; and our journey began auspiciously 
on 22nd June, when we travelled by train to Pao 
Ting Fu, and were there most hospitably enter- 
tained by the local officials, who had fitted up an 
inn for us very comfortably. Four of our party 
were kindly accommodated by Mr. Lowrie of 
the American Presbyterian Mission, who did all 
he could to make our stay agreeable. 

Here we had to remain till Wednesday 26th, 
as mule-litters had been sent on ahead of us to 
Ting Chou, and would take nearly two days to 
reach there, while by train we should arrive in a 
few hours. We left Pao Ting Fu on the morning 
of the 26th, and the Nieh T'ai (provincial judge) 
travelled by the same train, as he was going round 
part of the province (Chihli) on a tour of in- 
spection. At Ting Chou we found two places 
prepared for us, one of them being the same 
house in which General von Kettler had stayed. 
Soon after arriving the local official paid us a visit, 
which we afterwards returned. Having come to 
the terminus of the railway, the next day (Thurs- 
day 27th June) we took to our mule -litters 
and travelled to Hsin Loh Hsien under Chinese 
escort. SQme distance outside the town we were 
received by the localofficTarkn^ representatives of 
the gentry, who also called upon us at the inn 
»3iich they had prepared for our accommodation. 

Here we reached the limits of the French lines, 
and were asked by the officer in command to sign 
a paper, which said that he had warned us of 

128 Fire and Sword in Shansi 

reported disturbances in Shansi, and that we went 
on at our own risk and on our own responsibility. 

Cheng Ting Fu was reached on Friday 28th, 
and here we were entertained by the abbot of a 
large Buddhist monastery, our provisions being 
supplied by the local officials. This monastery 
is celebrated because it possesses two Imperial 
tablets — one presented by the Emperor Kang 
Hsi, and the other by the Emperor Chien Lung. 
It also boasts, perhaps, the largest idol in the 
country, which stands some 70 Chinese feet 
above its pedestal. The house in which it is 
located has been allowed to fall into ruins, so that 
its head protrudes through the roof. The whole 
figure is covered with thick bronze plates. At 
this city we met the first of the " Shapsl police " 
— a. bo jy of mfftn Qrganised by ShdnTaot'ai of the 
Imjjerial JFoodgn Pffice^^^ T'ai Yiian Fu, to escort 
foreigners, and ChinfiSfi Jiierchahts tfavellTng with 
treasure, to and from Sh^nsi^ There are nine 
posts in all, and at each post are ten men, under 
the command of an officer — all the officers having 
been cadets at the Shansi Military Academy, 
established by Governor Hu some three years ago, 
but abolished by the infampus-^ir+faien. 

On Saturday 29th we reached Hwai Luh 
Hsien, but met with a very cool reception ; for 
not only was the official not at the gate to 
welcome us, but he had deputed no one to act 
for him or to show us to our quarters. Our 
escort ascertained for themselves where we were 
to be located, and we found it most inadequate 

After the Massacres 129 

accommodation. Consequently, when the official 
sent his card we declined to receive it, and also 
refused the meagre repast which he provided. 
This soon brought him to his senses, and before 
long h^. l^ a^ whip ped^ up re prpypntati irpg ^ -the 
geg try and mprrhan tfi ^ whem-4ie> MAt ta. visit US 
and offer apology. He also assisted our envoy 
or Wei Yiiah to find other accommodation for 
US, had it suitably fitted up, and there awaited 
our arrival. After this everything went smoothly ; 
and he did all he could for us, making ample 
amends for the slight he had put upon us or. 
our arrival. We felt it necessary to act as we 
did, because he was in office during 1 900, and did 
little or nothing to help Mr. and Mrs. Green or 
to suppress the Boxers; and also for the sake 
of those who might come to recommence work 

Before leaving Hwai Luh Hsien a ^^Wfich 
deserter arrived, much to the consternation of the 
officiai. On the advice of Major Pereira, he 
consented to return to the French lines under 
Chinese escort. 

Here other mules had to be hired for our 
luggage, as carts were no longer available. Our 
escort was further added to by the arrival of an 
officer with some fifteen soldiers, who had been 
sent by the Governor of Shansi. Among them 
were four standard-bearers and two trumpeters, 
and with our long caravan we made quite a brave 
show. At, j^ch place where we stayed we were 
met by the official and representatives of the 


^ '/ ^^_^>■n^L 

130 Fire and Sword in Shansi 

rentry in full dr€ S^±.^lh£K.^ lso escorte d us 
some little distance when we left. Suitable 
accommociation was eveiywhere provTded for us, 
and at each place we were supplied with food. 

The reception at^T'ai Yuan Fu was everything 
thiiLlc^I3r!EeL- desired ; the Taot'ai and Sh6n 
Taot'ai (head of the Foreign Board there), with 
representatives of the gentry an4 naiyfihanty, and 
several military officials, meeting us about half a 
'4 "'^ t ' -'^ milft.. from the. city_at the Reception Jiall, where 
:i high officials coming to the city are generally 
"^^-"- received. There we sipped tea and chatted for 
a time, and then proceeded to the city, accom- 
panied by our old escort and others, so that we 
had about thirty outriders. By this time a great 
crowd had collegtedy and, we passed >alQBg -streets 
tEronged with people. At the house prepared 
for us we were met by the Fant'ai; also the 
Taot'ai and Sh6n Taot*ai — ^the two latter having 
passed us in their chairs, in order to be there 
to receive us. After chatting and sipping tea 
in the guest-room for some time, Sh6n Taot'ai 
said : " And now I will show you your chambers." 
Following him to the next court he pointed to 
one room and said : " This is your bath-room." 
Then we went to the dining-room, and found the 
table tastefully arranged in foreign fashion with 
flowers and fruits. Here we sat and again sipped 
tea ; and it was quite late in the evening before 
our hosts took their departure^ leaving us to 
partake of a foreign-prepared dinner. The courts 
were lit with lamps, and the street in front of the 

After the Massacres 131 

house was quite illuminated. Two of our teachers 
slipped out among the people to hear what they 
might say. One man was heard to remark: 

than a prince would be^' Another said : " They 
have cer tainly done the thing in very good style." 
They heard^ nothing but approvalof the recep- 
tion. While we were so comfortably settled, our 
thoughts constantly reverted to the events of the 
year before. We accepted the attentions not only 
as an expression of regret for what had happened, 
but also as a mark of honour to those who fell. 

By a remarkable coincidence, and without any 
prearrangement on our part, we arrived at T'ai 
Yuan Fu on the first anniversary of the massacre 
in that city — g^^J^. 

The next day we paid return calls on the 
officials; and on the Friday (the nth) wc were 
invited to a feast with the Fant'ai (Treasurer) 
and other high Mandarins. It was in semi- 
foreign style, the tables being most tastefully 
decorated with fruits, sweetmeats, etc. After- 
wards we were all photographed together; and 
the Taot'ai was in quite a jocular mood, for he 
said : " The Boxers will certainly say we are Er 
Mao tzus (secondary foreigners) now; and they 
will have the evidence, for here we are being taken 
with the Yang Kwei tzus (foreign devils) ! " It 
was all said in such a friendly way that one could 
not take offence. 

On Saturday the 1 2 th we had our first business 
interview with the officials, when they laid before 

132 Fire and Sword in Shansi 

us their proposals for the settlement of affairs; 
and — thanks to the pressure which had been 
brought to bear on them from Peking after our 
interview with Li Hung Chang — these were 
considered quite adequate. They jgrr<>^H that 
there should be a public funer^J with full Chinese 
cpremonial, to be attended by the officials "and 
gentry. The coffins containing the renmins of 
the martyrs had already been buried ; two 
hundred workmen having been engaged night 
and day for ten days, so as to get everything 
done before our arrival. 

It was agreed, too, that the house where the 
missionaries were kept previous to the massacres 
should be demolished, a pavilion with tablet and 
inscription erected on the site, and the ground 
around made into a garden. Memorial tablets 
were to be placed in a wall close to the scene 
of massacre, and a large stone erected outside 
the south' gate of the city on the exact^ spot 
where the tablet to the infamous Yii Hsien had 
been put up. 

It was not till the nth June 1902 that the 
first of these commemorative tablets — that near 
the Governor's y^men — was erected. The stone, 
though of large dimensions, was, alas ! so crowded 
with names that there was but room for the 
briefest inscription to the effect that the memorial 
stone was erected " In memory of the Christian 
missionaries who laid down their lives in T'ai 
Yiian Fu in July 1900"; while in Chinese it 
was stated that they had sacrificed their lives 

a. Mr Tj«d.r. j. Dr Cieuy Sniilh. 

3. Mr A. On Ewing. S. Mr Moir fi. Duncin. 

^. Mr D. E. Hwtt. g. Dr E. H. Edwinli. 

;, Oflkiolsait hyGavErnororShiinsiullsadof Escori. 

First Party of Protestanl Missionaries to enter Shansi after the Massacre. 
Start from Pao Ting Fa. 

Out Escort in Shansi. 

After the Massacres 133 

for religion. The names of the thirty -four 
martyrs were engraved both in English and 

On the day of the ceremony a small pavilion 
bad been erected opposite the stone, and there 
H. E. Sh6n Taot'ai, the Chihfu (Prefect), and 
the Chihhsien (Sub-Prefect), with other officials, 
received the missionaries and the professors of 
the new university, including Dr. Richard. The 
streets were lined with a company of the military 
police, and the ceremony consisted of a brief 
oration by H. E. Sh6n Taofai to the effect that 
the Gfovemor greatly regretted the massacre, and 
that by order from the Throne the stone had been 
erected; that although dead these missionaries 
would be held in continual honour; and that 
officials and people greatly appreciated the 
generous forbearance of the Christian Church. 
To this the Rev. Arthur Sowerby made a 
suitable reply, stating that, although the dead 
could not be restored to life, it was gratifying 
to have their innocence thus publicly proclaimed, 
and it was the earnest hope of the missionaries 
that the truths for which these men and women 
had died might pfbve acceptable to the officials 
and people of China, and that thus China and the 
West might be united in the worship of the 
Almighty Creator, in the faith of Jesus Christ, 
and in brotherliness and harmony, and then 
these martyrs would not have died in vain. / 
With the presentation of arms by the troops, 
and some military music, the brief but impressive 

134 Pirc and Sword in Shansi 

ceremony came to an end. The China Inland 
Mission was represented by the Rev. Dugald and 
Mrs. Lawson, and the English Baptist Mission 
by the Revs. J. J. Turner and Arthur Sowerby.^ 

It was further arranged at our interview with 
the officials in July 1901 that the funeral cere- 
monies at T'ai Yiian Fu were to be repeated at 
every place in Shansi where foreigners had been 
massacred ; cemeteries made and kept in order at 
public expense, and suitable commemorative tablets 

With regard to the Indemnity question, before 
leaving Peking we had been informed by the 
British Minister that, where claims for the pro- 
perty of missions or missionaries had been put in, 
these would be settled by an official appointed by 
the British Legation. The indemnities for the 
Chinese Christians were to be settled locally, and 
at our meeting with the officials at T'ai Yiian Fu 
they agreed that this should be done. The settle-* 
ment arrived at will be referred to subsequently. 

Another point discussed and settled was the 
Pt}nishmefll^ of ^^Ae^- Boit s r s. As so many people 
were involved, and as to severely punish all con- 
cerned would undoubtedly help to increase the 
ill-feeling felt towards Christians, it was decided 
that the demands of justice would be met if 
the ringleader or leaders in each district were 
executed or imprisoned; and the names of the 
remainder enrolled in the different yimens, as a 
warning that if they caused trouble in the future 

^ N<frtk CAinu Hcraid, Shanghai. 

After the Massacres 135 

they would be severely dealt with. As a mattet 
of fact, for the utaftsacce^^ef se n w fewr thousand 
five irini^fH^rnl-r;^ j^ (PrrTtftftant and 

LOman CatKolic), only some one hun dred , and 
@ranS5xiBr Teadacs-JKCteexecuted. 

On 1 8th July 1901 a memorial service for the 
martyrs at T'ai Yuan Fu was held, and the fol- 
lowing account, written at the time, is inserted 
in its entirety: — 

"It is now known that in July 1900 forty-six 
foreigners were killed in T'ai Yiian Fu, including 
several Protestant missionaries, their wives and 
children, two Roman Catholic bishops, three 
priests, and seven Sisters of Charity. We must 
not omit to mention that many Chinese Chris- 
tians perished at the same time. The massacre 
occurred on 9th July. Exactly a year later, to the 
veiy day, eight Protestant missionaries entered the 
city as the guests and at the invitation of the new 
Governor. After complimentary visits had been 
paid and returned, arrangements were at once 
made for the memorial services, and by the evening 
erf 1 7th July everything was ready. Outside the 
west gate of the entrance to the Governor's y&men, 
and near the place of the massacre, a large pavilion 
stretching across the street had been erected. 
About fifty yards farther south-west is the y^men 
of the Prefect. The centre of the inner court of 
this yimen had been covered with an awning, 
under which were arranged twenty-six banners, 
about 12 feet high, on which were inscribed in 
gilt letters the names of the Protestant martyrs, 

136 Fire and Sword in Shansi 

both foreign and Chinese. At the suggestion of 
Shdn Taot'ai, who had lived in England for a 
time, the officials had abo prepared a number of 
wreaths, which were placed on wooden frames 
covered with cloth. These were arranged in the 
same place as the banners. 

•'About nine o'clock on the morning of 
Thursday 1 8th July nine four-bearer chairs were 
brought to the door of the house where the 
missionaries were located. In these they were 
carried to the y^lmen of the Prefect. Accom- 
panying them in a private capacity was Major 
Pereira. At the y^lmen they were carried through 
the court, where the banners and wreaths were 
arranged in a hall at the upper end, and there they 
were ceremoniously received by all the officials 
of the city except the Governor, who was 
supposed to be too ill to come out The court- 
yard was crowded with people, many of whom 
pushed right up to the place where the officials 
and foreigners were sitting. The final arrange- 
ments having been made, the procession started, 
being headed by one hundred foot-soldiers, who 
marched in fairly good order to the sound of 
bugle and drum, having been drilled by instruc- 
tors trained by Germans. Then followed the 
officials in their chairs, who were succeeded by the 
memorial banners and wreaths. The foreigners 
as chief mourners came last, and the procession 
was closed by about thirty cavalry. 

" The first stop was made at the pavilion near 
the Governor's yAmen, as it had been arranged to 

After the Massacres 137 

hold a short service as near as possible to the 
spot where the massacre had occurred. The 
leader of the service stood on a small raised 
platform, in front of which stood the officials and 
foreigners. The street was closely packed with 
people, and fairly good order was preserved, though 
there were only a few y&men servants to control 
the people, the soldiers having gone on ahead a 
little ,way. The service concluded, the procession 
re-formed in somewhat different order, and then 
passed slowly through the streets, which in many 
places were thronged with onlookers. The new 
cemetery is more than two miles from the city ; 
and after leaving the east gate, crossing the moat 
and passing through a small village, the road leads 
through a narrow gully in the * loess,' then along 
a stony, dry river-bed, and finally winds up rather 
a steep hillside to the hills east of the city. It 
took the procession nearly an hour and a half to 
reach this spot. Arrived there, the chief mourners 
were first of all met by the hundred foot-soldiers, 
presenting arms, and the sound of music. 

" In front of the gate of the cemetery a large 
awning had been erected, on one side of which 
were two tents and on the other three, awning and 
tents iJfeing all constructed on the chessboard 
patterns, with poles and variegated cloths about 
a foot wide. There the mourners were met by 
the officials, who ushered them into the principal 
tent, where more time had to be spent in par- 
taking of light refreshments and chatting. Mean- 
while the wreaths had been deposited on the 

138 Fire and Sword in Shansi 

graves, and the memorial banners arranged outside 
the tents. 

"A little time was spent in inspecting the 
graves and wreaths, and after awhile — with the 
officials, mourners, Chinese Christians, and many 
onlookers grouped around — two specially selected 
Manda rins entered the pavilion ; and one of them 
read an^dress which had been prepared by the 
Governor himself, and which was supposed to be 
an apology. The other officials then bowed three 
times towards the graves, after which one of the 
missionaries, in the name of the others, thanked 
the officials for coming* Finally, the address 
itself was handed over by ShSn Taot'ai, to be kept 
as a permanent record. This finished the cere- 
monies so far as officialdom was concerned, and 
'the Mandarins withdrew. Representatives of the 
gentry came forward and paid'^TKeir respects to 
the mourners "try TO akt ng a low bow, after wluch 
the Chinese Christians gathered around the pavilion, 
and a short service was held, which was conducted 
by Mr. Hoste of the C.I.M. 

"It was a beautiful day, and as from the pavilion 
one looked over the thirty-four new graves to the 
city and plain beyond and the high mountains to 
the west, all so peaceful, it was hard, nay almost 
impossible^ to realise what actually happened only 
a year and ten days before. Outwardly a great 
difference between now and then, and yet one 
instinctively felt the difference to be only super- 
ficial. Iti§.Jxu£.tbatj£presentatives of the gentry 
were at thecemetety^iaut.imther-t^ 

After the Massacres 139 

the merchan ts' guilds jgjgye j^py tftflgihh token 
ev^n of respectj'sucli as was doneiii.^EaaJEi»g Fu . . - 
(where many memorial tablets and scrolls were >'. .'" /^^-^ 
given) ; ^jth^llgh ffi?y nf t h^se guilds combined t o 
erect a me morial tablet ext ollin g tb rr mfmnti>r YU 
^Bgi. _i'he peoj^ie _ABPParfid tn bs. isnHfin rathpr 
than regentant 

" "^ Alfer returning to the city the missionaries and 
Major Pereira had an interview with the Governor, 
who had been reported to be too ill to receive them 
earlier. As tliey entered the yimen soldiers were 
drawn up at each gate, and at the entrance to the 
outer hall they were received by two junior 
ofEcers in full dress. By them they were con- 
ducted to an inner court, at the door of which they 
were met by the Governor, by whom they were 
ushered into a room down the centre of which 
was a long table, daintily arranged in fordgn 
fjashion, with white tablecloth, flowers, cakes, 
sweetmeats, etc. Sh£n Taot'ai was also present, 
and introduced the guests one by one, and 
then arranged them at the table. The con- 
versation turned upon general subjects ; but twice 
the Governor referred to the events of last year, 
for which he apologised and expressed great 

" After partaking of aerated waters and light 
refreshments and chatting awhile, the guests with- 
drew, excusing themselves because of their host's 
supposed convalescent condition. The Governor 
escorted them to the door of the courtyard, and 
the other two officials with Sh6n Taot'ai went 

140 Fire and Sword in Shansi 

with them to the front of the great hall, where 
their carts were waiting for them. 

" While all these demonstrations of regret for 
the past are so far satisfactory, it must be remem- 
ber^ that little or nothing was done until after 
the Germans took the passes leading to Shansi. 
It is true that in December last orders were given 
to collect the remains of those who were massacred ; 
but, remembering that they had been exposed to 
the ravages of wolves and dogs for five months, it 
is little to be wondered at that but few were 
found. All that was done subsequently was 
practically due to the initiative of the expectant 
Taot'ai, Sh6n Tun Ho, who has on several 
previous occasions shown his friendliness to 
foreigners, and for which he was a few years ago 
banished to Kalgan. But for his presence and 
influence, Protestant missionaries would probably 
not be there at present. As an indication of the 
influence on the other side, it may be mentioned 
that the official Peh — who was the Hsien (Sub- 
Prefect) in Tai Yiian Fu last year at the time of 
the massacres, and who almost ' outheroded ' 
Herod — ^was promoted to be the official at Ping 
Ting Chou, and was there on 24th April 1901, the 
day the Germans arrived at the Ku Kwan Pass. 
It was no wonder that his guilty conscience made 
him flee, no one knows where ; for when Mr. Pigott 
and party were brought before him on 8th July 
(Mr. Pigott and Mr. Robinson being handcuffed), 
he first made them wait at the front gate of his 
y&men for a long time surrounded by a great crowd 












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After the Massacres 141 

— then when they were brought before him he 
ordered the two men to have chains put round 
their necks, and all to kneel before him like 
common criminals ! Finally, though he probably 
knew what was to happen next day, he separated 
the party, not even allowing husband, wife, and 
child to be together, and put them all in the 
common prison. These were all British subjects ; 
and yet the representatives of England in China 
allowed this man to be promoted, and to remain 
in office until forced to flee by fear of the 

" Again, the magistrate of Shou Yang Hsien, 
whose name was on the black list published in the 
decree of 21st February, was still in office on 5 th 
July, and received the missionaries as they passed 
through. It is most difficult to reconcile this 
action with the protestations of regret ; and it is to 
be hoped that as time goes on further evidence 
will be forthcoming to show that their expressions 
of regret are sincere, and not merely the result of 
fear or expediency." 

The following is a translation of the Governor's 
address which was read at the funeral : — 

(The whole composition is constructed according 
to the canons laid down for funeral panegyrics. It 
is replete with recondite allusions, and of course 
was absolutely unintelligible to those who heard 
it read. The sacrificial offerings so frequently 
mentioned were not actually presented, as such a 
course would be repugnant to Christian ideas. 

142 Fire and Sword in Shansi 

But the writer of the elegy did not know how to 
make any but a heatfienode, and so they went 
in as on other occasions. Most of the character- 
istic Chinese notions about the dead are well 
illustrated. As^fhe firsjt thiag.-itthe-4«kul.,,at_5L- 
Ghristian burial, it is well worth studying.) 

'^HTE. Ts'en Ch*un Hsiian, Governor of Shansi, 
on the third day of the sixth moon of this year 
respectfully deputed Pan Li Yen, an expectant 
district magistrate of the Bureau of Foreign 
Affairs, to go and make libations and offerings 
of food to the souls of Protestant missionaries, 
upon which occasion he read the following com- 
position : 

"The cord which bound their souls was 
extraordinarily auspicious ; they were born flourish* 
ing from stars in the centre of the universe. 
Their favour was scattered over the north of 
China. Their earthly birthplace ^was famous to 
the eastward of the Isles of the Blest, and on the 
north. They cjime over ^ the peaceful sea; they 
were truly well versed in literature, the ^lite of 
three Kingdoms. They came to 'invr Shansi, and 
their aid was more than the traditional story of 
the Dragon Pond (Peking) and the Deer Park (a 
famous resort of Buddha). Though from remote 
countries, whose speech requires repeated inter- 
pretations, they come, yea, from beyond the 
western night, and the land without any thunder 
they hastened to save. Their religion was first 
received into China by the Emperor Cheng Kuan 
of the Tang dynasty (627 A.D.), who built and 

After the Massacres 143 

adorned churches for the Great Pure Sect of 
Christians^ and 6pened nine ports for commerce. 
He spread abroad the praises of the seven days 
(Sabbath), and on account of their merits he 
bestowed Imperial commendations upon them, as 
may be seen in the archives of the Hung Lu Ssu, 
Peking (a department in the Tang dynasty charged 
with the ceremonial of receiving ambassadors from 
foreign countries). The ancient prohibitions are 
removed. It was as if the native of Shantung 
(Confucius) went to Szechuan along with his 
disciples, or as if the native of Ching Kuo roamed 
to Chin Kuo, taking his wife and children. They 
resided perseveringly in the dark coasts of Shansi, 
and straightway opened refined homes, which 
surpassed those of Tang and Wei, and also large 
hospitals. When crops failed and floods swept all 
before them, they collected money from afar and 
freely distributed it to the distressed. The rude 
people of the north pleaded for life, and the 
missionaries bounteously renovated them. Just 
as China in all ages reverences Ho Yuan, and the 
Kingdoms of Chao and Wd submitted to the 
learning of Ko Yen, almost like Lan Ling who 
resided at Ching Kiang, fishing and sauntering 
about, or Feng She who moved to Li Yang 
(Shensi) and felt as much at ease as if he were 
in his own home, the missionaries travelled over 
the four seas and formed social connections with 
our people, so that China and foreign lands were 
as one family 

'^ ])ut suddenly occurred the unlucky affair at 

144 ^^^^ ^^^ Sword in Shansi 

Peking, which involved all of Chihli in a common 
ruin, and the Boxers arose, brandishing swords 
and pikes, as uiicanny as Shih P i ng 2 with :fa is 
qn'charifeiT'water andT written charms; or like" 
Chang: Chiao, who began the Whltr-fcfly-SbcietyT 
or TaxyFti with his water fairy plan ;'"or Len Yen, 
who believed in^^lU^ Rice Thief G od, seek ing 
glory with lawless pride, slaying' tTie***KHitans 
(foreigners) and yet calling themselves ' RTg htepu s * ; 
like Kuang Sheng, who slew Tung Fu that he 
might possess his wealth; or worse than Chin 
Shih Huang, who buried the scholars alive and 
destroyed all the pagodas and temples in Wei. 
They careered through Shansi, delighting in 
slaughter, not sparing the women. In defiance 
of Heaven and Earth, even the children were 
all exterminated. On tiie banks of the rivers 
we condole for them. Alasl their bones are 
borne upon the rushing waves. When we try 
to call back their spirits, woe is me, for they 
are flying like Will-o'-the-wisps in the vast deserts 
of sand. The rustics of the villages wonder at 
the strange cry of the (bewitching) fox. Chui 
Mai took on himself the cap of the majestic 
tiger, and for months did not dispel the distress 
of the yellow aspen. From the north on the 
Yellow River's bank to the Fen River, meander- 
ing in the south, all were drawn into the calamity 
of the Red Turbans (the Boxers); the heavenly 
crane comes back; the city falls under the 
baleful influence of the star Yuan Hsiao (in 
Aquarius). Insects as numerous as the sands 

After the Massacres 145 

distress the dying. Their numbers are greater 
than in Sin Ma Chien's history, the brave have 
beat upon their bosoms for grief, the courageous 
split their eyes for weeping. This Boxer craze 
was indeed the deadliest poison of the human 
race, which brought ten thousand woes upon bs. 

" The people of the villages were able in some 
cases to gather together and oppose the Red 
Turban rebels (Boxers). Those who dwell in 
mountain temples by their bravery escaped the 
edge of the sword. 

^'The souls of the departed missionaries pre- 
served their bodies in righteousness, they regarded 
death as but a return. Sharp weapons and pure 
gold they alike put far from them. Although 
swords were as thick as the trees of the forest, 
yet they thought death to be as sweet as 
delicious viands. This was because their know- \ 
ledge transcended that of the multitude, for their \ 
hearts were illuminated by a candle as bright 
as the sun, their pure breasts were early fixed 
in purpose, flowing down like a boat set loose 
upon a stream, which finally reached the other 
shore. They lived not in vain. Truly, their 
sincerity was as reliable as the sun in the 
heavens, and their loyalty as sure as the ever* — 
lasting hills and rivers. 

" Now the clouds and mists have cleared away, 
and the baleful influences are happily dissipated. 
The Emperor who dwells in Heaven (Peking) 
had issued a decree ordering an erection of 
a memorial stone to clear their memories from 

146 Fire and Sword in Shansi 

blame. The people are most penitent, and come 
together to hear this elegy upon the deceased 
missionaries with one consent 

"Those who secretly laid in wait for them 
with axes and mallets are truly sinners. But 
the unceasing filial piety of the missionaries, 
how excellent! purifying the evil morals of our 
people. We have come with rich delicacies and 
spread them out in order as a sumptuous banquet. 
Our grain is good, our rice shining, set out on 
red cloths. The officials have come in their 
official trappings which tinkle as they move, in 
caps and robes befitting the solemn occasion. 
With united voice they join in the ceremony. 
The drums and bells resound upon the dais, 
decorated profusely with red hangings. Although 
the missionaries met the spear's point, it was only 
a moment and all was over; but their souls 
(and fame) will last a thousand autumns. Many 
scrolls in their praise are hung up, and many 
funeral banners. We are all assembled at their 
graves, and the tear-drops fall fast. Our 
common carts and white horses which we use 
in sign of mourning have come together like 
the wind which accompanies the rain. We read 
this eulogy upon the deceased to celebrate their 
illustrious virtue. With the utmost sincerity we 
make our offering of sacrificial grain, so that 
their souls may understand we honour them, 
and hence protect the living from ruia Deign 
to accept this my offering I " ^ 

^ Cekstidl Empire^ Shanghai. 

Memorial Sbrvicb, T'ai Vi'a 

n passing through the Streets. 

After the Massacres 147 

On 29th July a memorial service was held 
at yist^^ CH^Q u. Mr. Moir Duncan, Dr. Creasy 
Smith, and myself being present The following 
account was written immediately after: — 

" The Mission house formerly occupied by Mr. 
Dixon, and subsequently by Mr. and Mrs. 
M'Currach, had been prepared for our accommo- 
dation. Thi^ house had not been footed except 
by the landlord, who had evidently carried off all 
the little knick-knacks, and the sitting-room was 
'probably in much the same condition as it was 
left by the missionaries when they fled for their 
lives on 29th June of last year. It can be 
imagined how vividly the whole scene came 
before us as we explored the different rooms 
and thought of the account of the flight as 
given in the last letters of the martyrs; and 
it was with heavy hearts that we took up our 
temporary abode in their vacated dwelling. 

''Though all the.of!lcials. and representatives 
of tbe*« gentry had met us on arrival outside 
the city, the head magistrate and another called 
on us later in the afternoon, and with them we 
went to see the newly-made cemetery, containing 
the graves of the victims. We found a good 
site had been selected for it on very high ground 
at the south-west comer of the city, close to what 
is called the Altar of Heaven. Standing by the 
graves, one had a splendid view to the south of 
part of the plain, while in a cleft of the rugged 
mountains to the east could be clearly seen 
the white houses of the temple, where the 

14S Fire and Sword in Shansi 

missionaries occasionally went during the hot 
months of the summer. To the north-east lay 
the city, the walls of which followed the hill- 
side as it sloped down, from the high gfround 
on which we stood, towards the river. The 
graves had been arranged in one line, and as 
we stood and looked at them a lump would 
come into our throats. How strange and in* « 
scrutable it all appeared I Two of those lying 
there, Mr. and Mrs.. .Dixon, were cut off in the 
prime of life; while the others, Mr. and Mrs. 
M'Currach, Mr. and Mrs. Underwood, Miss 
Renaut, and Mr. Ennals, were only just begin* 
ning their life's work, and had every prospect 
of a useful future before them. ' His ways 
are not our ways, neither are His thoughts our 

"A little after 9 a.m. on 29th July we left 
the house where we were staying, in sedan chairs, 
and went first to the magistrate's official residence 
(y&men), where memorial banners and wreaths, 
such as those which were described in connection 
with the T'ai Yiian services, had been prepared. 
Of the banners there were five — one each for Mr. 
and Mrs. Dixon, Mr. and Mrs. M'Currach, Mr, 
and Mrs.^TJnderwood," Miss Renautj^land Mr. 
Ennals pbut of the wreaths there were eigK^^^ne 
for each grave. Having been received by the 
magistrate and other officials, and final arrange- 
ments having been made as to the order of pro- 
cession, we left for the east gate, the scene of the 

After the Massacres 149 

•*^The enclosure between the inner and outer 
gates is very small, so that the actual spot where 
the cowardly and brutal deed was committed is 
known. Here a pavilion was erected, in which 
were a platform and table. Arrived there we 
waited till the officials and representatives of the 
gentry had come, and then a short service, consist^ 
ing of the reading of Scripture, an address, and 
prayer, all of which had been prepared by Mr. 
Duncan. After this the procession was re-formed, 
but being at the rear we could not see the exact 
order. The officials in their chairs probably went 
first, preceded by the usual rag-tag and bob-tail 
which always accompanies a Mandarin. Then 
came forty or fifty horse-soldiers, followed by 
about one hundred infantry, marching to the 
sound of bugle and drum. Just in front of our 
chairs the Christians walked two -deep, all in 
mourning costume, and behind us came the 
memorial banners and wreaths. Of course such 
an unusual procession created great interest and 
curiosity, and the streets were thronged. 

" Though the town is not large, it took a long 
time for the procession to reach the south gate, 
but, that point passed, the cemetery was soon 
reached. There we found a great crowd 
assembled; but no one was allowed inside the 
enclosure except the mourners, and the servants 
accompanying the officials. The banners and 
wreaths were first arranged by tiie side of the tent 
covering the graves. Then when we had all 
assembled in this tent, with the officials ranged 

150 Fire and Sword in Shansi 

on one side and we and the Chinese Christians 
on the other, a specially appointed Mandarin read 
an address which had been prepared by the chief 
magistrate. After this we had a short Christian 
service, to which all the officials courteously 
remained. This finished, we adjourned with 
these officials to a side tent to drink tea and rest 
awhile. Thus the sad memorial service was over. 
The cemetery is yet to be finished, and crosses are 
to be erected over the graves. But we pray that 
there may be more lasting monuments to their 
memory in the Christian lives of not a few of the 
people of Hsin Chou." 

For the martyrs of the American Board Mission 
a memorial service was held at T'ai IKu "Hsien^'on 
.9th August, attended by Dr. Atwood, Mr. 'Moir 
Duncan, Dr. Creasy Smith, Mr. Hoste, Mr. 
Ernest Taylor, Major Pereira, and myself. The 
details were much the same as those already 
described in connection with the T*ai Yiian Fu 
and Hsin Chou services. 

On the afternoon of the same day Messrs. 
Duncan, Smith, and Pereira left for Hsi An Fu in 
Shensi, to distribute famine relief and succour the 
surviving Christians; and on Saturday the lOth 
Mr. Hoste and the other members of the China 
Inland Mission left for the south of the province, 
to visit the stations of that Mission and hold 
memorial services for the martyrs. 

The second party of missionaries to reach the 
province after the massacres arrived at the capital 

After the Massacres 151 

on 1 8th September, and with myself were invited 
to dine with the officials on the following Satur- 
day ; but, when it was discovered that that was a 
day of mourning for some ancient Emperor, the 
dinner had to be postponed to Sunday — ^the only 
available day, as the party had already arranged 
to leave again on Monday. Directly after the 
morning Chinese service we repaired to the club- 
house where the feast was to be held, and there 
found the Fant'ai (Treasurer), the old and new 
Nieht'ai (Provincial Judge), the Taot'ai (Intendant 
of Circuit), the Chihhsien (Sub-Prefect), and also 
Sh£n Taot'ai and ano&er official from the Bureau 
of Foreign Affairs, awaiting us. The Fut'ai 
(Governor) was not there, as the new Nieht'ai was 
supposed to take his place. Very little time was 
spent over the preliminary formalities and tea- 
drinking, and we soon sat down to the serious 
business of the occasion — the feast ! When at the 
conclusion we left, we were most ceremoniously 
escorted by all the officials to the main entrance 
(though asked again and again to " liu pu " — not 
to trouble themselves to come out), where they 
remained standing till we had mounted our carts 
and driven off. Such expressions of friendliness 
on the part of the " powers that be " were at that 
time of great importance, as the news rapidly 
spread through the city. 

The following day the new arrivals left, Messrs. 
Belcher and Middleton going northwards to hold 
memorial services at stations north of the Great 
Wall, while Messrs. Judd, Ambler, and Soeder- 

15a Fire and Sword in Shansi 

Strom went southwards to reoccupy vacant 

Mr. Soederstrom after a short time pushed 
onwards through Shensi to Kansuh, in the far 
north-west ; and while alone, so far as European 
companionship was concerned, was struck down 
by typhus fever, and died before any help could 
reach him. 

While memorial services were held for the 
martyred missionaries, the following account of a 
memorial service held at Shou Yang will show 
that the native Christians who suffered so nobly 
were not forgotten : — 

"Shou Yang, 29th November.- — The funeral 
services for the Chinese Christians were carried out 
to-day, and I think on the whole satisfactorily. 
Memorial banners and scrolls had been prepared 
by the heads of the different villages where the 
massacres had taken place, and these had all been 
arranged in the court of the y&men, where a 
pavilion had been erected. When everything 
was ready a messenger came to invite us, and we 
three missionaries proceeded to the y^men in 
the sedan chairs provided for us, preceded by 
some of the local * braves ' and four of the Shansi 
' police.* 

" Arrived at the y^men, we were received by 
the officials in the special pavilion. The proces- 
sion was then formed, and proceeded on its round. 
First came the thirty -seven memorial scrolls, 
representing the seventy-two Christians who had 
beeii massacred. After each scroll, which was of 

Martvrs' Cemei 

View of Cemetery from adjacent hill. 

Pavilion and Grave 

After the Massacres 153 

silk and 12 feet high, came- a silk banner on 
which was a Christian motto in gold letters, 
followed by the band (1) of the village from which 
the memorials came. Soldiers with banners and 
the police came next, and these were followed by 
the missionaries in chairs, the Chinese Christians 
— ^women and girls in carts and men on foot — 
closing the line. 

*' Leaving the city by the south gate, the 
procession made a circuit of the city and suburbs, 
and then went to the spot at the south-west 
comer, where twenty-one Christians— men, women, 
and children — laid down their lives for Christ 
Their remains had been carelessly buried where 
they fell, and were exposed to the ravages of 
wolves and dogs for sixteen months. Not until 
the Governor sent special word to have them 
interred was Bxiytioing done in the way of burying 
them properly. 

^ A tent for the reception of the missionaries, 
and a pavilion with a raised platform for the 
service, were erected near the site of the massacre. 
The city wall and a sloping bank behind it were 
thronged with people, as it was a market day; 
and here, in the presence of the local officials and 
a crowd numbering quite two thousand to three 
thousand people, a Christian memorial service was 
held for the martyrs of last year. 

" After the service, the magistrates accompanied 
us to the Mission premises and formally handed 
over the repaired buildings, with the few posses- 
sions of the missionaries which had been recovered. 

154 ^^^^ ^^^ Sword in Shansi 

** It was a sad and trying duty, but at the 
same time a great privilege, to be able to bear 
public testimony to the cause of Christ, and pay 
a tribute to the memory of those who had so 
nobly suffered for Him " 


When the first party of Protestant missionaries 
entered the province of Shansi after the massacres, 
the troops of the Allies still occupied the adjoin- 
ing province of Chihli ; and there is no doubt but 
that both officials and people were in fear and 
trepidation as to what the demands would be for 
reparation for the one hundred and fifty-nine 
foreigners massacred ; for it was well known that 
in the province of Shantung, for the murder of 
two Roman Catholic German missionaries a few 
years previously, the Germans had occupied the 
important port of Kiao Chou, and demanded 
mining, railway, and other rights. 

As soon as it became known that two of the 
Protestant societies waived all claims for Mission 
property destroyed, and that the demands of the 
others were not only just but very moderate, 
there was a distinct feeling of relief — it cannot be 
said, gratitude — on the part both of officials and 
people. The Governor officially acknowledged, 
by proclamation issued through the Foreign 
Bureau, that the Missions thus waiving their 
claims were not actuated by unworthy motives. 
That issued for the China Inland Mission has 

After the Massacres 155 

been already published; and the following is a 
translation of the one posted in T'ai Yiian Fu 
on behalf of what was known as the Shou Yang: 
Misg o nj — 

"1. Dr. Edwards, sympathising with the words 
of the Saviour of the world, • Love your neigh- 
bour as yourself/ remembers that Shansi has 
often been striken by famine. Upon this 
occasion the settlement of missionary cases again 
threatens to press heavily on the merchants and 
people. Therefore, to secure the friendship of the 
people, to thank Governor Ts'en Ch*un Hsuan for 
his great courtesy in meeting and protecting the 
missionaries, and Taot'ai Sh^n Tun Ho for his 
intelligent management of matters, it is agreed to 
settle the cases (of this Mission) upon an unusually 
friendly basis, hoping at the same time that the 
missionaries of other Boards will follow so ex- 
cellent an example, and thus secure everlasting 
peace between people and converts. 

*' 2. Last year ten buildin£sJbdcU2fiin& Jo this 
M igsion in T' ai Yiian Fu were burned and all 
their contents looted, viz. men's and women's 
hospitals, church, dispensary, girls' school, and 
residence. The total value reaches over^ne 
hundred thousand taels. No compensation is 
adjfidJpC this loss. - . 

'* 3. Among the things looted was an iron safe 
containing deeds, bank drafts, and account books : 
these will be regarded as waste paper, and the 
Governor will be invited to send a deputy to 
measure the land according to the old boundaries, 

156 Fire and Sword in Shansi 

and new deeds bearing the official seal will be 
given Dr. Edwards. 

" 4. Dr. Edwards thanks the Governor for 
having sent men to remove the coal, lime, etc., 
which had been heaped upon the sites of the 
Mission buildings, and invites him to issue a 
proclamation forever forbidding the people from 
again trespassing on the ground. 

*^ 5. The converts of this Mission, in addition to 
the loss of property, were scattered abroad at the 
time of the burnings and killings. The expense 
they were then put to, as well as the loss incurred 
because they were not able to reap their harvest, 
will not be included in their demand for com- 
pensation. Hence there will be many poor 
people without compensation. But before Dr. 
Edwards came to Shansi his deacons borrowed 
eleven hundred taels from the Governor. This 
sum, through the extraordinary grace of the 
Governor, will not be required at tiielr hands, in 
proof that he loves the people as his own 
children. Dr. Edwards is entirely satisfied with 
this arrangement. In consideration of no com- 
pensation being asked for the buildings, etc., the 
Governor is invited by the officials of the Foreign 
Bureau to issue a proclamation stating that Dr. 
Edwards' action is not due to a desire to stand 
well with the people, but to his belief that he 
should obey the words of the Saviour of the 
world, viz. * Love your neighbour as yourself ; and, 
moreover, he cannot bear to see the people taxed 
(to pay missionary indemnities). This proclama- 

After the Massacres 


tion shall, in addition, state the friendly desire of 
the Chinese Government to protect the Churches. 
This proclamation shall be cut on a stone, to be 
erected in front of the church " 

Three copies of this agreement were signed, 
one of which was deposited with the Governor, 
another in the local Bureau of Foreign Affairs, 
while the third is in my possession. 

As regards the compensation given to the 
native Christians, the following statement will 
show at a glance the amount granted by the 
Grovemor. Besides the families of those who 
were killed, there were, of course, many others 
who had lost houses and property, so that the 
amount received by each was not large : — 


Number of 
Adherents lulled. 


China Inland Mission • 
Baptist Mission . • 
American Board . . 
Shou Yang Mission • 



Taels 73,156 » 
n 35,776 
II 25,000 
•1 5,600 

In addition to the above, the Christian 
Herald of New York started a " Famine Relief 
Fund" for China, through which the sum of 
Tls. 26,000 was sent to Shansi to be distributed 
by the missionaries. This increased the favour- 
able impression previously produced, and the 
Governor again issued a proclamation, which was 

^ The tael at that time was equal in value to about 2s. 6d. 

158 Fire and Sword in Shansi 

published all over the province, and in which he 
said — 

''Be it known that last year and the year 
before there was great drought in this province, 
causing much suffering; and hunger - stricken 
people were everywhere. Last year the country 
was devastated by the Boxer rebellion, and the 
misery was beyond words. By the Imperial 
favour, relief was again distributed to arrest the 
distress and revive the land, like water pouring 
into a barren waste. But the suffering was wide- 
spread, and those to be relieved many, and the 
anxiety was great lest one should not obtain 
relief. Therefore the two American Protestant 
missionaries. Wen Ah Teh and Yeh Shou Chen, 
brought for the two provinces of Shansi and Shensi 
money contributed in their country. Everywhere 
where there had been mischief done by the Boxers 
they relieved all according to one rule — not dis- 
tinguishing between Christians and non-Christians. 

** Let all understand that these missionaries are 
willing and pleased thus to distribute relief 
without any idea of gaining merit. All my 
people who are in distress should with one voice 
return thanks for this. Previously, in the third 
and fourth years of the present reign there was also 
great calamity in this province, and those wander- 
ing about homeless were beyond counting. At 
that time the Protestant missionary, Li Ti Mo T'ai 
(Rev. Timothy Richard), preached in this province, 
and brought much money generously contributed, 
and thus saved alive innumerable people who 

After the Massacres 159 

were in distress. The people of this province 
should at this time think of that, for now the 
missionaries Wen and Yeh have come to again 
save all who are loudly wailing, without distinc- 
tion of boundaries, and the dawning of the sunshine 
is the same now as it was then I This is certainly 
good news I I, the Governor, am anxious that 
on account of this the people of this province shall 
think well of the Church, and not in the least speak 
evil of it Thus not only will both non- Chris- 
tians and Christians of the province be benefited, 
but also there will be the blessing of friendliness 
created between China and foreign countries. 

''This proclamation is for the information of 
officials and people, both civil and military. All 
should be perfectly acquainted with it 

** Fully acquaint yourselves and notify others." 

In connection with the question of indemnity, it 
should be mentioned that before the Protestant 
missionaries had returned to the province, and of 
course without being asked to do so, the Governor, 
at the suggestion of Sh£n Taofai, allocated the 
sum of Tls. 5600 for the repair of -fte Mission 
premises at Shou Yang belonging; to the late Mr. 
and"Mfsr Pigott 

Before I left T'ai Yiian Fu a movement was 
set on foot by th e gentr y to make some acknow- 
ledgment of the fact that i nad asked for no com- 
pensation for the destruction of the hospital and 
adjoining property. I declined both an honorary 
umbrella (Wan Min San), such as is occasionally 

i6o Fire and Sword in Shansi 

given to an official as a compliment, or a laudatory 
stone tablet ; but suggested that if the destruction 
of the hospital was really regretted, the people of 
the city should do something voluntarily to help 
rebuild it. The idea was taken up, but the 
scheme had first of all to be submitted to the 
Governor for his approval. As it received his 
sanction, subscription books were prepared, and 
the first contributors were the Governor himself and 
other high officials, who between them subscribed 
the sum of Tls. 2000. By the time I left, ^fewmer- 

chs^jS^isJ^ s j A^a Oi tn b jiM t h e sum»aL ^l2Li$Q' 

It is hoped that the hospital may eventually bere- 
built entirely by voluntary gifts from the Chinese. 
With regard to Dr. Richard's proposal that the 
province should pay the sum of Tls. 500,000, in 
ten yearly instalments, towards the establishment 
of a school of Western learning for the Chinese, 
when this was submitted to the Governor he very 
strongly demurred on the ground of the poverty 
of the people. It was pointed^Qut tOi^higi that 
the amount was not large^ and that moce. money 
than that was spent every year, oi^tiieatacals 
aroneJTrofir which 'the people derived .no. benefit 
wliateveiv- Dr. Richard wisely, pressed his point, 
and eventually the Governor consented condition- 
ally, and deputed an official to go to Shanghai to 
consult with him on the subject. The conditions 
laid down by the Governor were the following : — 
(i) The money contributed for the purpose should 
on no account be regarded as a fine for the affairs 
of 1900. (2) The foreign teachers should not 

Memorial Service, Tai Yuan Fu. 

rival of Procession ai Cemetei]>. Memcirial Banners o 

Service at the Cemeiery, conducted by Mr D. E. Htate, C I. M. 

After the Massacres i6i 

be allowed to "promulgate the doctrine" in the 
colleges. (3) No chapel should be connected with 
the schools. (4) The foreign teachers should have 
nothing whatever to do with the internal arrange- 
ments of the colleges or schools. Dr. Richard 
could, of course, have nothing to do with the 
scheme on these conditions; but, after further 
communications had passed between him and the 
Governor, the latter consented to grant the sum 
required, and hand over the management of the 
college to Dr. Richard unconditionally for ten 
years, after which it was to revert to the Chinese 

The final arrangements made are best given in 
Dr^ Richard's own words, in a communication sent 
to the Shanghai North China Herald^ 


** In the autumn of last year an agreement was 
entered into with the Governor of Shansi where- 
by I should have the sole control of the sum of 
Tls. 50,000 annually for ten years. Then it was 
that I invited six professors from Europe and 
America to teach in it and translate for it, with 
the Rev. Moir Duncan, M.A., as Principal. On 
3rd April we started for Shansi with some of 
these and six native professors of Western | 
learning. Meanwhile^ the Goveiaior gf^hansi 

tasUiSSa jQld^>£3ii^ and prejudiced men 
that our institution was only to be a proselytisincf 
OQfeb^o 3estr6y* Confucianism and* "f8 Torce the 


^ « 

1 62 Fire and Sword in Shansi 

students of Shansi to be come Christians, rfve up 
flie" most" sacred , customs of China, and Jea^n 
the evU ways , p LJbe^ West, — Hj£.tliereft>i5e-*was 

perplexed; sgrne-a^hFised him-ta..J2P6n.i^ 
one on Confucian bases. 

"It took forty days of conference to remove 
this suspicion. At the very first interview with 
the Governor we strongly deprecated having two 
rival institutions, as it would be a great waste of 
money, and it would also perpetuate the strife 
which our new institution was intended to end. 
Why not rather amalgamate the two under one 
general name of Shansi University, and let one 
devote itself entirely to the study of Chinese 
learning (for Chinese education is rather backward 
in Shansi), and the other devote itself entirely to 
Western learning ? This the enlightened Taofai, 
Sh^n Tun Ho, at once supported, suggesting a 
name for each, which was subsequently adopted. 
The Governor seemed inclined to the same view, 
provided he would have a share in the control 
This was arranged afterwards to the entire satis- 
faction of both parties. 

" The next point of interest is a radical departure 
in the course of study. It has been the rule 
almost universally in China to have half the day 
devoted to Chinese studies and the other half 
to Western studies. But I pointed out to the 
Governor that the times were serious, and China 
might have trouble with foreigners soon again. 
If they did not prepare men quickly, they were 
exposing themselves to great perils. I therefore 

After the Massacres 163 

proposed that none should be admitted to the 
Western Department who had not the Siutsai 
(Chinese B.A.) degree, and finished their course 
in Chinese learning. In this way at the end of 
six years they would have better men turned out 
than those who had spent twelve years according 
to the old system. ' This he was a little afraid 
of at first, but finally acquiesced in most heartily. 
** The question of religious liberty, which is now 
occupying much of the attention of all engaged 
in Christian Missions, also came up. We arrived 
at the conclusion, after a very long day's con- 
ference, that the framers of Regulations for the 
conduct of any university had no power to 
abrogate solemn treaties made with foreign 
Powers forty years ago. It was a matter for 
Peking, and not for the provincial authorities, to 
decide on. Consequently this matter was left; 
we rely on the toleration which the treaties 
secured. I find intelligent Chinamen most 
reasonable on this point The Grand Viceroy 
Tso told me, * H£ypu dp. ^ot force Qjjt-jjgpple 

to^ftCaro? Christians if tj^ejt wish to.' 

"As the new buildings for the university are 
not yet up, the Governor kindly lent for our 
present use the H\ggj|g.«£i5Y§ JECuan, the residence 
of the Imperial Examiner for the Chinese M.A. 
degree, which was put up by H. E. Chang Chih 
Tung when Governor there, over twenty years 
a^o. It is the best building for our purpose in the 
city. This was handed over to us on the 9th of 

164 Fire and Sword in Shansi 

June, when the Governor invited Principal Duncan, 
Professor Nystrom, and myself to meet the lead- 
ing officiab and gentry of the city to dinner in 
our new quarters. This was the happy conclusion 
of our negotiations. On the following day I left. 

"On the 26th of June, when the necessary 
alterations had been made in the buildings, the 
Foreign Department was formally opened, with 
the Governor, leading officials, and gentry in 
attendance, when ninety-eight students enrolled 
themselves. Two more foreign professors, Messrs. 
Peck and Swallow, have gone to Shansi since, 
thus making the Shansi University stronger in 
its foreign staff than any other as yet. 

"The next important question, as to how to 
provide the best text-books for the university, 
is too wide a subject to enter on here, though 
intimately connected with the well-being of the 
university. MeanwhUe we have a translation 
department in Shanghai, where Professor Lyman 
and Mr. Darrock, with a staff of Chinese assistants, 
are hard at work preparing text-books. 

" So much in regard to the new agreement by 
which the two institutions in Shansi work har- 
moniously instead of as rivals. May they both 
prove fruitiul of much good to that sorely afflicted 
province. The ability, energy, and devotion of 
the Principal, and the high qualifications of the 
professors, together with the goodwill of the 
officials and gentry, give us every reason to hope 
that it will be so. Mrs. Duncan, who is an 
L.L.A., and who at present is the only foreign 

After the Massacres 165 

lady in T'ai YUan Fu, hopes by and by to open 
a school for higher-class ladies." 

[With regard to the funds for the support of 
the university, Principal Moir Duncan, writing on 
23rd September 1902, said — 

'* I. The money is not, as represented, blood 
money, in any sense. 

''2. It is not being extorted from an unwilling 
and famine-stricken populace, but comes direct 
from the Board of Revenue."] 


While the question of compensating the Pro- 
testant Missions was satisfactorily settled in a com- 
paratively short time, far different was it with the 
claims of the Roman Catholics. 

It must be remembered that they lost both in 
persons and property much more heavily than the ^ < /. ^ 
Protestants ; but, however great their losses, these ' ' "/' 
hardly justified the demands made. At one of 
the first interviews with the acting Governor they 

^. In the city of T'ai Yiian Fu itself they 
demanded that either the Governor's y^Unen or 
a large college called the Ling Teh T'ang should 
be handed over to them as a place of residence, 
in lieu of the cathedral and adjoining buildings 
which had been destroyed. Further, they de- 
manded either the buildings of the Military 
Academy or the Arsenal. 
;2C' Outside the city they demanded that two 

1 66 Fire and Sword in Shansi 

market towns should be practically handed over 
to them — the original inhabitants being made to 
vacate their homes, as they had been deeply 
implicated in the Boxer movement The first 
of these places is Shih T'ieh, a most important 
market town some 90 "li" east of T'ai Yiian 
Fu, on the high road from the provinces of Shansi, 
Shensi, and Kansuh to Peking. There, all carts 
travelling east or west have to change axle-trees, 
as the gauge alters from broad to narrow. It can 
easily be seen, therefore, what a strategic point 
that is, and how any person or party possessing 
it would practically control all the traffic through 
Hwai Luh and the Ku Kwan Pass westward. 

The second place — Chin Tzu — 50 "li" south- 
west of T'ai Yiian Fu, is celebrated for its spring 
of abundant and pure water. There are many 
legends concerning the origin of the spring ; and 
a splendid temple has been erected in its vicinity, 
which is the resort of not a few wealthy people 
during the summer months. The water from the 
spring is public property, and is most carefully 
utilised for the irrigation of many acres of adjoin- 
ing land, on which is grown rice ; and the Chin 
Tzu rice is celebrated all over the province. Both 
these places the Governor was, of course, most 
unwiying to hand over to them. 

jr. A money indemnity of Tls. 10,000,000. 

it is little wonder that when these demands 
were formulated the Governor was aghast ; and 
after much discussion he said to the priest, " I 
really cannot grant your demands, and you had 

After the Massacres 167 

better accuse me to the authorities at Peking, 
saying that I am unfit for my office ; for I would 
rather lose rank and office than give away public 
property." (This was related to me by one who 
was present at the interview.) 

Then it was that the Vicar£enfi»L^Father 
Barns^bas, wrote the following letter, sending one 
c6py to Count von Waldersee, another to General 
von Kettler, and a third to the German officer 
commanding at the Ch'ang Ch'eng K'ou Pass : — 

"Tax yuan Fd, lotkjune 1901. 

"Sir, — We have received three times the 
report that the General Tung^Fu HsiaJig, in West 
Mongolia, has killed all BQlgiaa^ ^a ii o p ionari es, and 
on the loth of June crossed the Yellow River and 
has come to Shansi in order to take the city of 
T'ai Ytian Fu and kill every Catholic. The 
Viceroy says he has sent troops to oppose General 
Tung, but I do not believe he is able to do so, 
even if it is true that he has sent any troops. 
Also in Yung Ning Chou rebellion has broken 
out. People say that the well-known haters of 
Europeans, Ma YU K'uen and Hu, jChjea^ Szu, 
will come here very soon. His nephew Ma Ch'in 
Yu is still here. The officials are not willing to 
receive us in audience, and will not punish the 
most guilty of the Boxers. All is showing 
imminent danger. I know that the glorious 
German army has helpahHii»^^^S5E&s^^ 
muc¥, and so T ask you to sejad a* stso^ force 
lor ffie protection of T^ai Yiian Fu. Here in out 

1 68 Fire and Sword in %ansi 

city a thousand and more men can live. IJh^ 

though they are jpriests. _ They are afraid of the 
Mandarins, and say always thers^i§ .no danger.— 1 
aih, Sir, wiHTIKe respect, your humble servant, 

" Barnabas, Vic. Generalis. 

**P.S, — We have telegraphed three times to 
Peking and written three times, but I believe they 
have not arrived, and we have received no reply." 

Had the priests induced either German or 
French troops to go to their rescue (!), they would 
have been able to press their demands with a 
force at their back. 

Failing this, they were not, however, to be out- 
done ; so on one point at least they presented an 
ultimatum, saying that ^t four o'clock on a <;ertain 
day they would go and occupy, the college (Ling 
Teh T'ang) ; and, if opposed and thfjre was^trouble, 
t hey would ♦ .hold the local officials responsible. 
Not wishing for a scene of ^rther complication, 
the authorities induced the resident staff and 
students to leave before the arrival of the priests, 
who at the time appointed appeared with many 
of their converts and took up their abode. 

Eventually the matter was referred to Peking, 
and Father Barnabas went to plead his own 
cause. He there disagreed with the French 
Minister, and withdrew the Mission from French 
protection, but failed to place it under Italian 
protection. His true motive came out, and as a 
result he was not allowed to return to Shansi. 

After the Massacres 169 

Meanwhile the priests who remained kept 
themselves well before the people. In August an 
image of the Vii^n Mary was brought from one 
of their out-station^^tjs?* Ii5,,£lgced in a tfOfWtng of 
ihe newTy occupied^. .CQjyifige»^,wbiQh. feey tised as a 
chap^^'TFwas escorted with much pomp, bands 
[Haying and banners flying; and four specially 
appointed officials (Wei Yiian) went out some 
distance to meet and escort it to its destination. 
Much attention was attracted by the unusual 
procession, and many people lined the street as 
spectators. Here and there one would be found 
who had his queue round his head or a cloth on 
his forehead, to protect him from the sun. If such 
were within reach of the sticks with which the 
converts were provided, they promptly got a 
knock on the head, followed by the injunction to 
put down the queue or remove the cloth ! Inside 
the college elaborate services were held for several 
days, attended by about a thousand people. 

In the villages too they were also much to the 
fore. Wherever any of their converts had been 
killed, they demanded from the village one 
thousand "strings" of cash (each "string" con- 
sisting of 1000 cash) to pay for a suitable 
funeral, which was to be accompanied by all the 
usual paraphernalia of bands, memorial banners, 
flags, etc As these same villagers would have to 
pay their share of the general indemnity money, 
the officials considered they could not ask them 
to pay such a large amount in addition, specially 
in view of the bad harvests of the last two years* 

I/O Fire and Sword in Shansi 

They accordingly asked the priests to let them 
know what they really wanted, and they would 
estimate the cost On receiving the programme 
of the c eremonie s demanded^ they calculated that 
it could be carrie3out for the sum of fbrty-six 
''strings "of cash T and offered to procure that 
amount from each of the villages implicated. 
Eventually this was agreed to ; but the priest said 
he must, in addition, have one hundred"*^ strings" 
from each village, to pay for the " masses for the 

dead" that would have to be saSd. ' - ''^ 

After several months of negotiation, it was 
settled that the monetary indemnity should be 
^^^y X!5:,3j?,i2>9QSLL*sthat the demand for the 
two market towns should be given up ; and that 
two months after the signing of the agreement 
the college (Ling Teh T'ang) should be handed 
back to the Chinese authorities. 

The Rev. Arthur Sowerby, writing in February 
1902 from T'ai Yuan Fu to the North China 
Herald^ said — 

"The affairs of the Roman Catholic Missions 
in T'ai Yiian Fu are not yet finally settled. 
Lately Monsignor:.-Ho&iMm»y.BisbQp of Lu An Fu, 
has been here to act as intermediary. The priests 
belonging to the Italian Mission are young men, 
with but a few years' experience, and have not 
proved capable of managing such delicate nego- 
tiations. The chief difficulty arises from the 
forcible possession and retention of the large 
college known as the Ling Teh Tang. H. E. 
Sh£n Taot'ai recently obtained an expression of 

After the Massacres 171 

opinion from a large number of literary graduates 
on the missionary question. They wholly acquit 
the Protestant missionaries of any blameworthiness, 
but they unanimously express great indignation 
with the Catholics for their possession of the 
Ling Teh T'ang. H. E. Shfeii reported this to 


deredJbitihnpBj anrl .prftsacri. for. iJbe.^tendance of v ^ ^ 4> ^ . 
the Governor at the^iuneral. Shte TaoFai'will -' 

gran tthem exactly a similar ceremony to that 
given to the Prfitritqiit mioeinnarin, but no more. 
He will attend in person, but not the Fufai. The 
bishop pleads the exalted rank of the murdered 
bishops ; but Sh^n Taot'ai replied that the Qiinese 
officials know no difference betweea a.JRoxpan 
Catholic bishop of priest or Protestant missionary, 
— all must' Be treated as friends. The Catholics 
reply that they cannot give up the Ling Teh T'ang 
unless the Fut'ai will attend the funeral ; and to this 
the indignant answer is : * Well then, keep it/ 

" During the conversation H. E. Shfin Taot'ai 
had one trump-card up his sleeve, which he played 
to advantage. Suddenly he told the priests 
that if he wish ed he could Iiave "them all arrfested 
by his soldiers and put out oT ShansTJ'ks IkeyTuid 
no passports. Astonished, they replied that they 
had passports obtained from the French Govern- 
ment ; and then they were informed that, owing 
to the action of Father Barnabas, who had dis- 
agreed with the French Minister, so long ago as 

172 Fire and Sword in Shansi 

last June all their passports had been cancelled. 
Father Bamab^,s • had ^dtbdrawn .. tb£L . Mission 
from French protection, and they had failea to 
^pfetcerttiemselves under Italian .protection. Thus 
For "eight months these priests have^ in entire 
ignorance, been at the mercy of the Chinese ; and 
some credit must be g^ven to H. E. Sh£n for his 
forbearance in allowing them to remain in Tai 
Yuan Fu, After this H. E. Sh6n declined to 
recognise that they had any right to discuss the 
question further with him, and would only con- 
sent to do so as on the ground of friendship. 
There can be no doubt that the worthy bishop 
has done his best as a peacemaker, and has 
gained respect in consequence; but only time 
will show whether the policy adopted by the 
Catholics of attempting to gain all they could, 
rather than being willing to relinquish all they 
could, which has characterised the action of the 
Protestant Missions, has been the wiser method. 

" Bishop Hofmann further demanded that, if 
the Ling Teh T'ang be relinquished, no Protestant 
, missionary, or anyone who had ever held that 

I position, be allowed to enter it Thi.g wac; gn^nyr 
beyond fajs. province, and was a ^*TtlD£l' Hnw at 
Dr. Richard's proposed Shan5J,.Uj3iKKsity.. Here 
again, and very rightly, H. E. Sh^n adopted a 
very firm position, and refused to yield to this 
audacious proposal." 

The latest news is that the college has been given 
up, but the other points are still under discussion. 


Persecutions of the Native Church 

[TAs numbers within hrackets dmdi the age of the martyrs, '\ 

THE following particulars of the sufferings 
of the Chinese Christians in Shansi are 
given, as far as possible, in the words of the 
narrators themselves. 

The tortures to which some were subjected 
cannot be mentioned ; but in several instances 
details are given, that the Christian Church may 
know how nobly some of their brethren and 
sisters have suffered. 

t'ai yuan fu 

When the foreigners were inveigled out of the 
Mission house by a promise of protection and 
confined in one nearer the Hsien (Sub-Prefect's) 
y^men, treachery was suspected, yet several Chinese 
voluntarily offered to go with them to act as 
servants — Wang Hsi Ho as cook to Mr. Hoddle, 
and Chang Ch'eng Sheng in the same capacity 
for Mr. Beynpn. Both came from the province 
of Chihli, so that it is probable, had they wished 
to escape, they could have done so. Besides 
these there were Liu Pai Yiian, who had been 


174 Fi^6 ^^^ Sword in Shansi 

an assistant in the hospital for several years, and 
Liu Hao, who was acting temporarily as a servant. 
Of these four, three were baptized and the fourth had 
given in his name as an " inquirer." There was also 
Ch'ang Ang, a boy of only fifteen, who had been 
a pupil in Mr. Pigott's school at Shou Yang, and 
who, when the trouble broke out there, fled to T'ai 
Yuan Fu and took refuge with the missionaries. 

About noon on 9th July Mr. Farthing sent 
the two young men Liu Pai Yiian and Liu Hao 
out on different messages — the latter being 
directed to call both a mason and a whitewasher 
to do some repairs. Before they had time to 
return, the Governor — Yii Hsien — went with his 
soldiers to the house, arrested all whom he found 
there, and took them to his y^men, where they 
were immediately killed by his orders and in his 
presence. Not only were the two servants and 
the scholar from Shou Yang massacred with the 
foreigners, but also the mason who had • just 
arrived; and several others whose names are not 
known, who had gone to visit the missionaries 
on various business matters. Accompanying the 
Roman Catholic bishops, priests, and nuns were 
also five Chinese, who met the same fate. 
The next day their cathedral was attacked, 
aqd forty-nine converts massacred, most of the 
women and girls being spared, and subsequently 
sold ta.the Boxers and their friends; but many 
of these were afterwards recovered and returned 
to their relatives. After 9th July only four 
Protestant converts were killed in T'ai Yiian Fu 

> / 

Persecutions of the Native Church 175 

itself, but the houses of those who had any 
valuables were all looted and then utilised as 

stables for the soldiers! hi the Jmmsdiate ^^i< »-fe >• 

vicinitj^ the Roman Catholics suffered severely, ^ ^ '^'" •' \ * ' 

two hundrecTTieliQg' killed in" one yijlgnjg ridne; ^^ 

and it is estimated that in the whole province ^ 

they lost, about eight thousand ; while the total j^^ ^. v 

loss of die, f rotfistants . (so far as iis known) is 

aoQut three hwidfed md , ai^htj^. ^f ^these, one 

hundred and fifty-six were connected with the 

China Inland Mission, one hundred and twenty ^ ' '• ^^ 

with the English Baptist Society, seventy-nine y\ ^ c . -• 

with the American Board, and twenty-seven with 

the Shou Yang Mission. Others were killed in 

that part of Shansi outside the Great Wall, but 

full particulars of these are not }ret to hand. 

That there were not more killed is probably 
due to the fact that soon after 9th July a pro- 
clamation was issued notifying the Christians that 
if they left the Church they should be protected. 
A great number availed themselves of this offer, 
and, having obtained the certificates of protection, 
returned to their homes to find them pillaged 
and burnt But the Boxers having tasted blood, 
it was difficult to restrain them; so on 25th 
August another proclamation was issued saying 
that the authority to kill was not with the people 
or even the high officials, and if after that date 
any Christians were killed without cause (I) the 
murderers would be summarily executed. 

Of the districts worked by Protestant Missions, 
that of T'ai Ku, occupied by the American Board, 

176 Fire and Sword in Shan^ 

suffered most severely, and details will probably 
be published by Dr. Atwood, the sole survivor 
of that Mission in Shansi ; but the noble example 
of evangelist Liu must be mentioned. Of com- 
manding presence, he was all his life a well-known 
figure in T'ai Ku, having been for some years 
employed in the local y^men. Being a confirmed 
opium smoker, he applied to Mr. Clapp to assist 
him break off the habit, and while under his care 
was converted. Very soon he became conspicu- 
ous as a Christian, and for several years was Mr. 
Clapp's right-hand helper. When the troubles 
\ broke out, many of his friends promised to hide 

and protect him if he would biit leave the mission- 
aries ; but this he stoutly refused to do. When 
the Boxers broke into the Mission premises, to 
their surprise they found him quietly sitting at 
the door of the chapel where he had so often 
preached, and he met them with the words, " Come 
on friends, kill me first J " Without any mercy 
he was immediately cut down. 


Shou Yang Hsien comes next with a martyr 
roll of seventy, nineteen of whom were killed out- 
side the west gate of the city, after a mock trial 
held before the magistrate himself and the Boxer 
leaders, while the rest were massacred wherever 
they were caught Some of them were ofTered 
their lives if they would recant, but r^liiasd 4n deny 
their Lord; white o»hf*n were not given the option. 

Not a few families were almost exterminated, — 

Memorial Servic 

Beceplion of Mourners by the Resident Magistra 

of marlyrdora and burial (Jt) 
K Chriilians. 

Persecutions of the Native Church 177 

no mercy being shown to even infants in arms, — 
but perhaps the one who suffered most was that 
of Yen Lai Pao, the Christian who noblvpflfered 
[r » and Mrs. Pig ott a r efuge inhis home when 


three days, and then had to forsake that 

refuge, as the Boxers had risen in the neighbouring 

villages, where they were killing the Christians and 

burning their houses. On the evening of Monday 

2nd July Mr. Pigott and family returned to Shou 

Yang, while Yen and his relatives (numbering 

twenty people) fled into the mountain ravines close 

at hand. The next day the Boxers appeared and 

burnt all the houses of this family, after having 

first stolen everything that was of any value. 

Then began the search for the members of the 

family, and the first to be arrested was Yen Lai 

Pao himself, who was immediately killed. One of 

his younger sons was then found ; and because he 

would not say where the rest of the family were 

hiding, he was taken to his village and there 

tortured to make him confess. His hands and 

feet were tied together behind, and a pole passed 

between, by which he was suspended. Still 

refusing to reveal the hiding-place of his relatives, 

burning incense was then placed upon his back 

and a heavy stone put upon that 1 All this failed 

to elicit any information from him ; yet that same 

day six other members of the family were arrested, 

sent to the city (Shou Yang), and there killed. 

Within the next few days seven others were 

arrested and killed, and only six men were left to 


178 Fire and Sword in Shansi 

represent the family, all the women and younger 
members having fallen victims to the hatred of 
their enemies. That they suffered so severely 
was undoubtedly due to the fact that thejj^^^ed 
to oflfexLJ^ refuge to the foreigners : ^and, while no 
compensation will make up for the serious loss of 
life, their noble efforts to protect the missionaries 
will not be forgotten. 

Of the nineteen who suffered outside the gate 
of Shou Yang city, some were put to death in a 
most barbarous manner ; but Mi Sien Seng was 
the one who was treated with the greatest cruelty. 
He was a member of the Baptist Mission, and for 
some years had been one of Mr. Pigott's helpers. 
When taken before the mock tribunal, composed of 
the magistrate and Boxer leaders, he was very fear- 
less, and refused to recant He was then handed 
over for execution, taken outside the city with several 
others, and there mutilated in a manner which for- 
bids description, before being finally beheaded. 

Among those killed at die same time as Mi 
Sien Seng was Wang Ten Jen, who had been 
practically brought up in Mr. Pigott's household, 
and proved one of his most faithful servants and 
helpers. When the missionaries fled he was 
anxious to accompany them, but had to remain to 
look after his wife and children. Being a most 
consistent Christian, he was soon sought out by the 
Boxers, who took him before their tribunal. He 
stoutly refused to defile a figure of the cross made 
on the ground, though offered his life if he would 
do so, and was immediately sentenced to death. 

Persecutions of the Native Church 179 

Tsai Ching Yung was an object of special hatred 
by the Boxers, and suffered severely in consequence. 
He was a house painter by trade, and also at times 
painted idols. While a patient in the hospital at 
T'ai Yuan Fu he was converted, and then gave up 
that part of his trade. On returning to his home 
he used a room in his house as a village chapel, 
and was quite fearless in preaching, venturing even 
into the temples or wherever he could get an 
audience. When caught by the Boxers he was 
first beaten and wounded, then bound and taken 
before the tribunal at Shou Yang. While lying 
there bound and bruised, he was ridiculed by the 
bystanders. Some asked, " Does it hurt, teacher ? " 
while others rejoined, " Ah, it won't last long." 
Another said, "Preach to us now, teacher!" 
After a so-called trial he too was condemned to 
death, and beheaded outside the city, his head 
being hung on a neighbouring tree. 

Li Kai, an old man of over sixty, was~ arrested 
by the people of his own village and handed over 
to the Boxers, who took him to the city. When 
brought before the official he was too dazed to 
answer any questions, so was beaten till nearly 
insensible and then placed in a tall wooden cage, 
with only his head protruding through an aperture 
in the top — one of the most cruel forms of Chinese 
torture. After a few hours, as he was not dead, 
he was taken out and executed outside the city 
with others. 

One of the saddest cases was that of faithful 
Hu of Shih T'ieh, who for many years had been 

i8o Fire and Sword in Shansi 

an evangelist in connection with the Baptist 
Mission. He was well known, and his whole- 
hearted witness early marked him out for death. 
He was finally hunted down, beheaded, disem- 
bowelled, his heart cut out, and then his dis- 
membered body was cast into the fire. 

Ot^Jthfi. seventy-one killed in this^district JEorty- 
ty/p were men^ eighteen women; and- eleven cbi l- 
dren ; and the above are but a few samples of the 
manner in which many of them heroically met 
their death. Not a few fled into the mountains, 
and were chased for days by their pursuers. 
Husbands were killed in the presence of their 
wives, while children were massacred in their 
mothers' arms. One woman was actually buried 
alive. All their sufferings could not be delineated, 
and will probably never be fully known. 

That so many suffered in Shou Yang Hsien 
was undoubtedly partly due to the apathy of 
the official then in office. He made no effort 
whatever to protect the Christians ; but, when two 
Boxers threatened him for some reason, he 
immediately sent to T'ai Yuan Fu for help, and 
on the arrival of two hundred soldiers had the 
men arrested and beheaded, the only two who 
were punished in that district ! 


In the district of Hsin Chou (the scene of the 
massacre of Mr. and Mrs. Herbert Dixon, Mr. 
and Mrs. Wm. M'Currach, Mr. and Mrs. T. J. 

Persecutions of the Native Church i8i 

Underwood, Miss Bessie Renaut, and Mr. Sydney 
W. Ennals) the persecution began soon after the 
flight of the missionaries for their lives on^pth 
June. Several of the Christians accompanied them, 
among whom was Ho Tsuen Kwei, He was an 
old man of sixty, and at one time had been part- 
proprietor of a dyeing business. On his con- 
version he had relinquished his share in this, and 
accepted a comparatively small salary to act as 
helper to Rev. J. J. Turner. He fled with the 
missionaries, and remained with them in their 
hiding-place until about 1 3th July, when he was 
sent to ascertain how matters were east of Hsin 
Chou, and to see if it were possible to get to the 
coast that way. 

On nearing Hsin Chou he called at the village 
where his sister lived, and was there arrested by 
the local Boxers — ^just a few lads in their teens. 
By them he was taken to^lRfi to WW suid handed 
over to the local ofiicial, Li Tsuen Kwang, who at 
once put him in handcufls. The next day this 
ofiicial examined Ho, and tried to find out from 
him where the missionaries were hiding; but he 
refiised to tell. This made the magistrate very 
angry, and he ordered him to be beaten with the 
bamboo. He still refused to say where the 
foreigners had gone ; and, while being beaten, the 
underlings of the y&men and bystanders ridiculed 
him, saying, " Doesn't it hurt ? You'll soon be in 
heaven." He was beaten with over a thousand 
strokes, and then when nearly insensible was 
thrown into prison, still wearing his handcufls, 

1 82 Fire and Sword in Shansi 

and in addition his feet were put in wooden stocks. 
Another Christian happened to be in prison at the 
time, and attended to his few wants ; but he was 
only able to take a little water, and on the fourth 
day death happily put an end to his sufferings. 
He was the first martyr — as he had been one of 
the first converts — in Hsin Chou. 

Ang Hsu Ken (50) and Chang Ling Wang 
(16) also retreated with the missionaries to their 
hiding-place. The latter was not a Church 
member, but had acted for some time as a ser- 
vant to the late Miss Renaut These two were 
advised to return home, as the provisions of the 
party were diminishing and there was little or no 
prospect of their being replenished. They started 
on their journey, but had not gone far before 
being arrested and examined by Boxers. It was 
soon found out who they were, and both were 
condemned to death. The elder man pleaded 
for the life of his young companion, and begged 
that he might be allowed to return. But the 
lad stoutly refused to leave his friend, and they 
were both hacked to death and their remains 

Si Er Mao (32) lived only 10 li from Hsin 
Chou, and was well known in the neighbourhood 
as a Christian, as he was always preaching to his 
heathen neighbours. He was therefore one of 
the marked men, and on 1 3 th July was arrested 
and bound by the Boxers of his own and the 
neighbouring villages and taken to a temple, where 
he was -ordered to kneel and " kowtow " to the 

Persecutions of the Native Church 183 

leader. This he refused to do, saying he was a 
child of God, and would not kneel to devils. This 
made the Boxer chief very angry, and he ordered 
his followers to beat him with sticks. At once he 
was knocked down and beaten while on the ground, 
but still he refused to kneel. His hands and feet 
were then tied tc^ther behind him, a pole was 
passed through, and, slung in this way, he was 
carried to the boundary of two villages and there 
hacked to death with swords. Having heard Si 
often speak of the doctrine of the resurrection, 
and fearing lest there might be some truth in it, 
they cut across the soles of his feet before burying 
him in a ditch that was near at hand 1 

On the same day, Chang Tao (47) and Si Hwa 
Yu (68) were arrested, taken to the village temple, 
tried, and condemned to death unless they would 
recant. This they refused to do, and were then 
taken to the spot where Si Er Mao had been 
murdered, and were again urged to leave the 
Church. They still declined to do this, and were 
immediately cut down and killed. As a favour, 
their relatives were allowed to take away their 
remains for burial ; but they were not interred in 
the family graveyard. 

A few days after, Chang Tao's mother (70) 
and daughter (11) found it necessary, in con- 
sequence of the threats of the Boxers, to leave 
their home and seek refuge with friends in a 
village near by ; but no one would take them in, 
as they were connected with Christians. At a 
loss to know what to do, they were returning to 

184 Fire and Sword in Shansi 

their own village, when they were met by a band 
of Boxers, who arrested and took them to their 
chief in Hsin Chou to ask for instructions as to 
their fate. The answer soon came : " Kill them 
where arrested," and they were accordingly taken 
back and murdered near their own village. 

Cheo Chi Cheng (30) was employed in a 
boot shop in Hsin Chou. The same day that the 
missionaries fled he took his wife and child to his 
mother-in-law's village for safety. Not long after, 
he was arrested there by the local Boxers and 
beaten till he was insensible. They then searched 
his clothes, and, finding that he had on his person 
a copy of the New Testament, decided to bum 
him. For this purpose they made every family 
in the village contribute a bundle of millet sticks, 
with which the fire was made, and he was thrown 
on and burnt to death. 

Wang Cheng Pang (50) was well known as a 
Christian, so when the trouble broke out he had 
to flee with his wife and family. He took them 
to a waste place in the open country ; and then, 
thinking they would be safer if he were not there, 
left them with the intention of going to a distance. 
But before he had gone very far he was recognised 
by some men of a neighbouring village who were 
watching their crops, and they immediately set 
upon him with stones and beat him till he was 
insensible. Finding that he was not dead, they 
knocked out his brains with their reaping-hooks. 
No other member of his family was injured, as 
they all managed in one way or another to escape. 

Persecutions of the Native Church 185 

When the missionaries fled on 29th June they 
rested at noon at the house of a Christian named 
Chang Chih Kweh (53), who welcomed them 
warmly, and did all he could for them. A few 
days after, when they were settled in their cave, he 
went to visit them, but was arrested on his way 
by the villagers of Fu Chia Chwang, who, long 
before the Boxer outbreak, had been the bitter 
opponents of their Christian neighbours because 
they would not subscribe towards the local the- 
atricals or the upkeep of the temples. That same 
day the Boxers from Hsin Chou arrived at the 
village on their way to seek the hiding-place of 
the foreigners, and demanded that Chang should 
be their guide. But he stoutly refused to show 
them the way, even though he was threatened 
with death. His persistent refusal so angered 
them that they set upon him with swords and 
sticks, and he was slowly done to death. 

One of the saddest, and yet perhaps brightest, 
cases is that of Chao Hsi Mao (30), his mother 
(57), sister (36), and wife, only nineteen years old. 
Being a prominent and well-known Christian, he 
was advised by his friends to leave his own 
village and flee. This he refused to do, and in 
July all four members were arrested by the 
Boxers, and their house and all their belongings 
burnt They were then bound and taken on a 
cart to the Boxer chief at Hsin Chou to ask for 
instructions. He said : " I don't want to see 
them ; take them back and kill them where 
arrested." While on their way back they joined 

1 86 

Fire and Sword in Shansi 


in singing the hymn, " He leadeth me." Arrived 
at a vacant spot outside their own village, they 
were taken down from the cart, and the man 
was first beheaded with the huge knife generally 
used for cutting straw. Still the women would 
not recant, and the old mother said : " You have 
killed my son, you can now kill me," and she too 
was beheaded. The other two were still stead- 
fast, and the sister said : " My brother and 
mother are dead, kill me too." After her death 
there was only the young wife left, and she said : 
" You have killed my husband, mother and sister- 
in-law — what have I to live for? Take my life 
as well." Thus all four sealed their testimony 
with their blood. In addition to the foregoing 
fifteen, one was killed by falling over a precipice 
while fleeing from the Boxers, so that Hsin Chou 
has now the honour of possessing a martyr roll 
of sixteen " valiant saints." 

The next station north of Hsin Chou is Kwo 
Hsien ; but here only one man, Chang Kwei (29), 
lost his life, so far as is known/ Though only an 
"inquirer," he was evidently well known as a 
Christian, and was sought for by the Boxers. 
He managed to escape from his own village, but 
was caught in a neighbouring one and at once 

Forty li north of Kwo Hsien is Tai Chou, and 
the number of Christians killed there would have 
been much greater had it not been for the 
energetic action of the Men Shang (attendant) of 
the local official. Among those who suffered was 

Persecutions of the Native Church 187 

the mother of Chen Chih Tao (So). When the 
Boxers arose, the whole family had to scatter; 
but the mother, not being able to go far, was the 
first one to be found, and she was discovered 
in a neighbouring temple where she was hiding. 
At once the Boxers set upon her with swords and 
hacked her to death. Soon after, Chen Chih Tao 
himself, his father, and brother were found, and 
taken to the same temple. To prevent their 
running away, the soles of their feet were burnt 
with hot irons, and then they were taken in a 
cart to Tai Chou, where they were to be tried 
by the Boxer chief. The Men Shang above 
mentioned having heard of what was taking place, 
waited till they were passing the y&men, and then 
rushed out with y&men-runners, rescued the three 
men, and kept them under his own care till the 
trouble had blown over. In this way this man 
saved the lives of more than ten Christians, him- 
self undertaking the responsibility, as his chief 
appears to have been a man without any stamina. 
In all the accounts received, nothing is more 
evident than that the local officials could protect 
the Christians when they wished ; and that, when 
they presented a bold front to the Boxers, these 
braggarts and cowards were easily overawed. 

In the case of Wang Shih (So), who was only 
an "inquirer," the Men Shang was unable to 
interfere, as the father of his accuser was a well- 
to-do man with some local influence. As early 
as 3rd June Wang Shih was attacked in his own 
house, and one of his hands severely injured. He 

1 88 Fire and Sword in Shansi 

was taken to the official, and accuscd^-e f ■ i n ju r in g 
his neighbours. The official asked wb»t^ evidence 
they had to produce; and one man at once spoke 
up aLTTPd-fiaidf -" My illness has been caused by 
hhn, and unless he is killed I cannot get better." 
The magistrate then asked Wang Shfh by what 
methods he injured people and made them sick ; 
but he made no reply. He was then ordered to 
be beaten several hundred blows with the banu 
boo; and after being beaten they were leading 
him away to prison to await further evidence, when 
the Boxers suddenly rushed upon him, and, drag- 
ging him away from the y^men-runners, took him 
without the city to kill him. Arrived outside the 
east gate, he was first set upon by the would-be 
sick man, who thrust him through the abdomen 
with a sword. The whole crowd of Boxers then 
attacked him, and he was literally cut to pieces. 

The terror in which even the people connected 
with Christians lived during the time the Boxer 
power was at its height is illustrated by the case 
of Chou Feng Hsi (47). He was part-proprietor 
of a shop in the city of Tai Chou itself; and, fear- 
ing lest he should be arrested, he attempted to 
escape by climbing over a wall. Unfortunately, he 
fell and broke his leg, and was carried back by 
his assistants to the shop. His partners, fearing 
lest it should be known that they had a Christian 
there, urged him to poison himself by taking 
opium. This at first he firmly refused to do, 
saying, " If you don't want me here, hand me 
over to the magistrate; or even to the Boxers 

Hsin Chou fioiii the south-easl. 

I. Tower over the gateway where the massacre occurred. 

2. Site of the Martyrs' Cemetery. 

Hsin Chou. Memorial Service o 

Persecutions of the Native Church 189 

themselves." But they were much too afraid to 
adopt either of .these plans, and finally either 
poisoned him or else compelled him to commit 

In a village not far from the city lived Tso 
Hung and his family. On the outbreak of the 
persecution they had all to flee, and scattered in 
various directions. His wife, mother (90), and 
daughter (10) hid in an old graveyard ; but were 
found by the Boxers, who were going to kill them, 
when some friends rushed to the city and in- 
formed the Men Shang. Without waiting for his 
horse, he immediately went out on foot with his 
attendants, rescued the three women, and arrested 
the Boxer leader. Unfortunately, the little girl 
had been so injured by the harsh treatment she 
received at the hands of the Boxers that she died 
soon after, thus raising die martyr roll of Tai 
Chou to four. 

Fan Szu Hsien is a small town 1 30 li tp the 
north-west of Tai Chou, and the events which 
happened there afford further evidence of the 
influence of local officials, and their power either 
to protect the Christians or leave them to the 
mercy of the Boxers. Missionary^ work had only 
been carried on in this town some four or five 
years — a missionary visiting it, at most, once a 
year. There were already quite a number of 
''inquirers," who, though not baptized, were 
recognised by their neighbours as Christians. 
A small house had been rented as a chapel, and 
an evangelist placed in charge. 

190 Fire and Sword in Shansi 

In consequence of the many wild rumours, 
the evangelist Chou Yung Yao had been advised 
to leave and go to his home; but he said he 
had been appointed to that station, and would 
not desert his post. As things became more 
threatening, he even sent in a petition to the 
magistrate, saying that if the Christians were in 
fault he was to blame, as he had taught them the 
doctrine. He asked, therefore, that he might be 
punished in some way to appease the anger of 
the people, and allow the others to go unmolested. 
To this petition the official gave no heed; sgid 
the Boxers evidently knew that they had a free 
hand, for the storm burst suddenly on the little 
band on S unday ist July, after their" service. 
The mob first attacked the chapel, breaking both 
the doors and windows, and then set the place on 
fire. They then sought and caught the evan- 
gelist, dragged him to the main street, and there 
beat him until he was unconscious. Regaining 
consciousness he attempted to rise, and was 
partially kneeling, when one cried out, " See, he 
is praying even now. Drag him to the fire." 
Immediately some of the bystanders caught hold 
of him and pulled him towards the burning 
chapel; but he said: "You need not drag me, 
I will go myself." He quietly walked to the 
chapel and entered the burning building, and 
almost immediately the roof fell in; death must 
have been instantaneous. But the mob was not 
satisfied, and sought everywhere for the Christians. 
Kao Chung Tang (44) was caught in the street, 

Persecutions of the Native Church 191 

beaten till nearly dead, and then thrown on the 
smouldering ruins of the chapel He was still 
conscious, and after a time begged the bystanders 
to give him some water. ** Do you want it hot 
or cold ? " asked one man. '' See, I will give you 
some lukewarm/' and then offered him some filth 
to drink. ** Others," said he, " would not even give 
you that" Among all the crowd there was not 
one that took pity on him, and the poor fellow 
lingered on till the next day. 

Hsu Yen (36) and Li Chung (32) were both 
at the service on that fateful Sunday, and when 
the riot began fled outside the city; but were 
caught, bound and beaten, brought back to the 
city, and thrown on the burning ruins, where they 

Not content with what had been done in the 
city, the Boxers then turned their attention to the 
villages. The home of Liu Tzu Hen was one 
of the first to be attacked, and the house was 
destroyed. All the members of the family 
escaped for the time being, the wife going to 
her mother's home in a village near at hand. 
The Boxers of that village hearing of her arrival, 
immediately sought her, and she had to flee a 
second time and hide in a field of wheat. There 
she was found and caught; and it is said she 
was stripped of all her clothing and bound 
and taken to the city, her captors beating her as 
they went along. Arrived at the city, she was 
thrown on to the smouldering ruins of the chapel, 
where she was left by her tormentors, who soon 


192 Fire and Sword in Shansi 

afterwards scattered. Finding herself free, she 
managed to creep out of the ruins, and had 
passed the city gate and was making her way- 
home, when she was caught again by the Boxers, 
brought back, and a second time thrown on the 
ruins. This time they did not leave her ; and as 
by night-time she was not dead, they took a cord 
and strangled her. Notwithstanding all her suffer^ 
ing, it is said she remained steadfast to the end. 

In another village the house of Kao Lien Teng 
(50) was attacked and burned. He himself was 
at once arrested and taken to the city, where he 
was tried (I) by the Boxers. He was asked : 
" Why did you enter the Church ? " " Because it 
was good." " Why then do you injure people ? " 
" I do harm to no one," he replied. " Well, if 
you will ' leiive this^. foreign sect and worsh ip 
.Buddha» we will not harm you." To this he 
made no reply, and they cried" out : "This man 
is not willing to repent, throw him into the fire." 
He was then dragged to the chapel and thrown 
on the smouldering ruins, and perished. His 
wife fled, and managed to reach her sister's home ; 
but was there arrested and brought to the city. 
She was taken to the ykmen; but the official 
would have nothing to do with the case, and she 
too was burnt to death in the same place as her 
husband. The eldest son (22) was arrested 
while fleeing, and taken to his village and burnt 
in the ruins of his own house. His wife (19) 
fled and hid in a cave, but was found and im- 
mediately stabbed through the abdomen, and 


Persecutions of the Native Church 193 

then buried before she was really dead. The 
second son (14) fled from village to village 
pursued by the Boxers, and was eventually taken 
in and protected by an uncle. He was so much 
frightened, however, that he was never himself 
again, and gradually wasted away, and died in a 
few months. Thus, of this family of seven, five 
have laid down their lives for the truth, and the 
two remaining are a girl of seven and a boy of 

But this does not complete the tale of those 
who lost their lives on that dreadful day, ist July. 
Two brothers, Yao Ch'i Hou (50) and Yao Ch'i 
Wang (44), were at the service in the city, but 
managed to escape to their own village. They 
were immediately arrested by the local Boxers, 
their house set on fire, and the elder of the two 
was burnt in his own home. The younger was 
taken to the temple of the god of war in the city, 
to be tried before a Boxer tribunal. It was at 
first decided that if he would provide fifty swords 
for the " cause " he would be allowed to go free ; 
but thereupon two Boxers kneeled before the 
chief and begged that he might be at once 
killed, '* because he had done much mischief." 
Their request was granted, and he was handed 
over to their tender mercies. As he was being 
led along he said, *' This is the happiest day of 
my life." This angered his persecutors all the 
more, and as soon as they reached the outside of 
the west gate they set upon him with their swords 
and killed him. 


194 F^^^ ^^d Sword in Shansi 

On that same day Kao Chung Tang's elder 
brother, Kao Ye Chung (52), their mother (80), 
and a boy of fifteen escaped, and reached the 
outside of the city before they were arrested. 
They were taken to a Boxer chief at the village 
of Li Chia Chwang, and he was asked what was 
to be done to them. "Set fire to the house of 
the Christian Kao Lien Teng, and bum them in 
it"; and these orders were instantly carried out 
to the letter. 

Perhaps the most sadly interesting case was 
that of Wang Hsin (33). He was a native of 
Fan Szu, and was well known in the city as 
having fcH-merly been a gambler, opium-smoker, 
and, in fact, a regular " blackleg." The genuine- 
ness of his conversion was manifested by 
a complete change of life; and, though not 
baptized, he was entrusted by the missionaries 
with a few books to sell, and thus became 
equally well known in all the surrounding 
d^tricts as a Christian. Early in July he was 
arrested in the village where he happened to 
be, searched to see if he had any poison on 
him, and all his books burnt. Not content 
with this, his persecutors set upon him with 
swords, wounding him seriously. They then 
bound him, took him to the city, and hekl a 
kind of trial in front of the military y^men. 
Many of the people said to him: "We know 
you were formerly a bad character, but have 
now reformed ; only de&ye the f oreign ^s^t^jaaid 
you will not be killed." He replied : " I have 

Persecutions of the Native Church 195 

already left thejOareiga.^ect "(apparently referring 
to Budahism},^ *• and now follow the Heavenly 
jioctritte^..xeverence the Supreme Ruler (SRang 
Ti), believe in jfesus, and worship the true 
God. fifow can you say I belong to a foreign 
sect?" It is said that he spoke quite a long 
time to his persecutors; but the Boxer leader 
said: ^This man has evidently been poisoned 
by the foreigners; what is this he is talking 
about ? If we do not kill him he will certainly 
do mischief." He was immediately taken outside 
the west gate of the city, and there killed in 
a most barbarous manner. 

The most pathetic cases were those of two 
sisters-in-law, wives of two brothers (Sun Cheng 
and Sun Hsiu), who with two children were 
botii burned to death in their own house. 
Their homes were attacked on the 2nd July, 
and all had to flee; but the two women, being 
near die time of their confinement, were not 
able to go far. The wife of the elder brother 
was caught in a neighbouring village, taken to 
the temple, bound to a tree, and then beaten. 
The next day she was taken back to the temple 
of her own village — her own home being all 
in ruins — and there gave birth to a child, which 
was immediately killed by the inhuman monsters. 
A mock trial was held, and she was asked: 
** What poison have you about you with which 
to do mischief?" She bravely replied: "We 
have left the false and turned to the true, the 
evil for the good. How have we done any 

196 Fire and Sword in Shansi 

mischief?" The leader of the Boxers yelled 
out : " She is not telling the truth, and jvill 
nnMgTvf; thf* fnrHca.jrprt She ought to be 
burnt ! " At once the part of her own home 
which was not quite burnt was rekindled, and 
she and a little boy of six, who had accompanied 
her all this time, were driven into the flames at 
the point of the sword. The wife of the younger 
brother was also ciaught, taken back^ her own 
village, and tried (I) by the same tribunal, if Ha f C 
you scattered abroad paper men to injure the 
4)e^fi.,of your village?^ she was aske37 She 
replied : *' It is you who kill, bum houses, and 
do mischief, not we." This made the Boxer 
leader very angry, and he said: ^'This woman 
ought to be burnt to death"; and she and her 
little boy of six were both driven into the flames, 
like her sister-in-law. 

One other woman, who died from injuries 
received while fleeing from her persecutors, raises 
the martyr roll of the infant Church at Fan Szu 
to twenty-two. 

The magistrate of this place, having so grossly 
neglected to protect the Christians within his 
jurisdiction, was greatly perplexed and agitated 
when the Germans took the passes in April 
1 90 1, and immediately had the rubbish removed 
from the site of the burnt chapel and a blank 
wall built along the street front, to hide all 
traces of what had taken place. Subsequently 
he disappeared, and, it is said, quietly returned 
to his own home. 

Persecutions of the Native Church 197 


Near P'ing Yang Fu, in the south of the pro- 
vince, where many Christians were killed and others 
robbed of all their possessions, eighteen had a 
cross cut on their foreheads with a knife, and 
were then kept under a scorching sun to make 
the scar permanent. Later, these same people 
were taken to the local official, who, to save their 
lives (I), had the men beaten on the thigh 400 to 
500 strokes with a bamboo rod, and then put 
them in prison for several weeks. The women 
were beaten on the hands an equal number of 
strokes, so that in some cases their hands were 

So high did the anti-foreign feeling run in this 
district, that the mob, doubtless desiring to make 
an example of those who had assisted foreigners 
in any way, fell upon and murdered an old man 
named P'eng, who had rented and afterwards sold 
a house to the foreigners. This is all the more 
significant, as this man was a thorough heathen, and 
had shown no interest whatever in the teachings 
of the missionaries. A man named Yen and his 
wife were natives of Chi Chou — the station occu- 
pied by Mr. and Mrs. Young. Being well known 
as Christians, they were taken by the Boxers and 
first hung up to a beam in a temple by their 
hands, which had been bound behind their backs. 
While in this exceedingly painful position they 
were beaten with rods, and then a slow fire was 
lit under them, just sufficient to scorch but not 

198 Fire and Sword in Slunsi 

to burn them. After undergoing this torture fw: 
a time, the wife was set free ; but the husband 
was bound and put into a circle of fire, which was 
large enough to prevent a speedy death. The 
poor man endured the agony as long as he could, 
and then, wishing speedily to terminate his life, 
managed to throw himself over into the flames. 
The Boxers thereupon heaped cinders over him, 
until a soldier standing by, indignant at the sight 
of such revolting cruelty, cursed the inhuman 
Boxers to their face, who at once set upon him 
and cut him to pieces. This enraged other 
soldiers, who rushed upon the Boxers and drove 
them off. They then removed the poor man 
from the fire, and, finding him still alive, took him 
to the y^men, where he was put in a dark prison 
without the least comfort For a time his poor 
wife begged her food where she could ; but when 
the Boxers were suppressed they were eventuallj^ 
reunited, and are both living to testify that the 
grace of God is " sufficient" 

When such atrocities were being committed, it 
is little wonder that some recanted ; but, on the 
other hand, the history of those who suffered death 
rather than deny their Lord will be an invaluable 
legacy, not only to the Church in Chins^ but 
throughout the world. 

One other case may be cited. A Christian 
was offered his life if he would but burn incense 
to the idols in the village temple. Life was dear 
to him, and it appeared a very simple thing to do. 
He took the incense in his hand, entered the 

Persecutions of the Native Church 199 

temple, but, when he saw the hideous idols he 
had renoun<^, threw the incense on the ground, 
saying, ^ I can't I " Immediately he was taken out 
and suffered the death penalty. 


It has already been mentioned that, when the 
ho^ital was burnt on 27th June, eleven school- 
girls were with the missionaries. Though scat- 
tered at the time and sold, some of them to 
slavery and worse, they were all subsequently 
recovered at our request and by the order of the 
late Plenipotentiary, Li Hung Chang. Those who 
had friends living were returned to their homes, 
while those who had no relatives were placed in 
the care of the Christian photographer and his 
family. Some we met on our return to T'ai 
Yiian Fu, and from their own lips obtained the 
stories of their sufferings. When we left Shansi 
in November 1901, as no Protestant lady had 
returned to the province to reopen a school, 
seven of the girls were taken to Peking and 
placed in the school of the American Board 

PU t'ao 

By Miss M. E. Skekleton 

** I well remember my first visit to the lovely 
hit! village of Chen Chih Po, the donkey ride up 
the picturesque mountain paths, and the warm 

200 Fire and Sword in Shansi 

welcome and loving hospitality at the end of the 
journey. Chang, the head of the household, who 
had been for some years a Christian, was a rugged, 
bearded man, staunch and faithful, and a most 
devoted father. He had taught his pretty, 
gentle wife to read her Bible In the difficult 
hieroglyphics of the country, and they longed 
above all things that their two dearly loved and 
petted daughters should become Christians also. 
On Sunday, when the weather permitted, he 
would walk lo miles to the nearest place of 
Christian worship, often leading his donkey with 
wife and baby or his daughters enthroned on 
its back. 

*^ It was there we first met Chang, and there I 
learned to know and love his wife — that sweet 
gentle woman, as refined in her way as any 
English lady. What a pleasure it was to hear 
her tell the gospel to her heathen country-women, 
so clearly and pointedly, so graphically and ear- 
nestly; but it was best of all to hear her pray 
with the children gathered round her — Tao Nu 
and Pu T'ao, and the baby boy who lisped after 
her the sacred words. We spent a day and night 
in the little home ; such a happy home it was — 
poor enough, for Chang was only a small farmer, 
but so clean and bright and peaceful. But how 
lonely! Not a neighbour would cross the 
Christian threshold. Certainly, the little family 
needed all the love and brightness they could 
muster among themselves, for they were shunned 
as though plague *- stricken : not more isolated 

Persecutions of the Native Church 201 

from human sympathy and help could they have 
been had they lived in the Sahara. 

« Pu T*ao, the younger daughter, was the pet of 
the family ; outwardly a tomboy and a romp, but 
at heart the most sensitive and loving of children. 
Utterly devoted to her father and mother, she was 
proud, as elder sisters will be, of the delicate baby 
boy who ruled king of the little household, just as 
English babies are wont to do ; indeed, one object 
of my visit was to see the wonderful baby, and 
a proud girl was Pu T'ao as she brought the 
treasure to be duly admired and petted. 

** Mr. Chang was anxious that Pu Tao should 
come to the Mission school in T'ai Yiian Fu, one 
day's journey from their home, for he was too 
enlightened a man to think that girls should be 
neglected, as the custom of the country is ; and for 
years Pu T'ao made one of our happy band of 
schoolgirls. Enjoying the school life thoroughly, 
the child was always eager for the home-going to 
the beloved father and mother. When the last 
holidays came, and the last home-going before the 
trouble, Pu T'ao gave her father the joy he had 
so longed for, and confessed herself a disciple of 
Christ. How little we all knew what Uie future 
had in store ! " 

We will now allow Pu T'ao to complete her 
own story. 

" Last year, -on 27th June, when the mob began 
to attack the Mission buildings, we schoolgirls 
were all taken over to Dr. Lovitt's court, where 
we found all the missionaries assembled. There 


202 Fire and Sword in Shansi I 

were only eleven scholars, as that very morning 
those girls who had friends in the city had been 
sent to their homes — ^not because there was any 
fear of a riot, but because the school was breaking 
up for the summer holidays. The crowd gradually 
set fire to all the houses, and we then had to retreat 
to Dr. Lovitt's kitchen. We could not stay there 
long, as the neighbours, fearing their own house 
would be set on fire, began to pull the building 
down. There was nothing to be done but to 
attempt to escape, and we children followed the 
missionaries as they left the compound. Soon 
after passing the outer gate I lost sight of the 
foreigners, as it was quite dark, and there was 
much commotion, and the people were pelting as 
with brickbats. I managed to get past the crowd, 
and soon found four other of the schoolgirb who 
had missed the foreigners. These were Hai 
Chiien, Hai Kw'ei, San San, and Nai Nii. 

« We walked on, not knowing where to go or 
what to do, when we saw a black dog just in 
front of us which seemed to be leading us some- 
where. If we stopped to talk together and consult 
as to which way we should go the dog would also 
stop, and when we went on he continued to lead 
us. At last we found ourselves at what we knew 
was the big south gate, and then we suddenly lost 
sight of our dog. We then scrambled up on to 
the city wall and hid ourselves in the big tower 
which is over the gate. Soon we heard some men 
coming along, and knew by their talk they were 
soldiers who were watching the wall. One of 

Persecutions of the Native Church 203 

them peered into our hiding-place and said, ' There 
are some people here ; bring a sword.' They then 
asked us, *Are there any foreigners here?' 
* Have you any guns ? ' We answered, * No, we 
are only a few children — ^scholars.' * Come out 
then and let us see who you are.' We went out, 
and, after answering all their questions, they said 
they would let us down by a big rope over the 
waU, and take us to a Christian woman who lived in 
the south suburb. Not knowing what their mean- 
hig might be, we said we would not go, and after 
some more talking they took us to their officer, who 
lived near the gate. By this time it was getting 
light, and soon after this officer took us to the 
y^men of the Sub-Prefect (Hsien). This official 
asked us each where we came from, whether we 
had father and mother, and many other questions 
about our family. Then we were sent to the 
Governor's y^men, where we were questioned again 
by cme of the secretaries. He sent us back to 
the Sub-Prefect's y^men, where we were made to 
sit all day in the open courtyard. A great many 
people came to stare at us and ask questions. In 
the evening we were allowed to go into the court 
occupied by the female servants of the Mandarin's 
family, and there we remained till 6th August 

" During that time the Mandarin's wife and 
daughters took little notice of us, and only the 
slave girls spoke to us. T^tt31^11!JLniii^"y QUfutiCT" 

ifit was really true that they took out the eyes. 
irts, and tongues of people. Of course we said 

204 Fire and Sword in Shansi 

it was not, but I don't think they believed us. 
While in the y^ftien we were not treated harshly ; 
only, we were not allowed to stay in the rooms 
during the day, but had to sit out in the open 
courtyard. One day San San's father came, and, 
after seeing the magistrate, was allowed to take 
her home. As the rest of us all came from Shou 
Yang Hsien we were sent back with the magis- 
trate of that place on 6th August, and stayed 
in his y^men till our friends came for us. Nai 
Nil was the first to go to her home, but I and 
Hai Chlien and Hai Kw'ei did not go till 4th 
September, when my uncle came to fetch me. On 
reaching what used to be my home I found it all 
desolate, as my father and mother had both been 
killed, as also my elder sister and her husband, 
and my little baby brother. I was glad to find 
two of my brothers, aged seven and nine, still living. 
They too had been caught by the Boxers and 
taken to Shou Yang Hsien, but were not killed, 
as they were only children. An opium-smoking 
uncle had taken charge of them ; and as my own 
home was utterly desolate, having been both 
pillaged and burnt, I too went to live at his 

" Some months after, without consulting me at 
all, I found he had b^^trothfid jme to a man thirty- 
seven years old whom I had ne velTseen, tor wfiich 
bTcotifserhe had received a sum of money. I was 
in great distress when I heard of this, and made 
many plans to get out of my trouble ; but none of 
them seemed feasible. At last I wrote a letter to 

Persecutions of the Native Church 205 

the Christian photographer in T'ai Yiian Fu, and 
got a lad to take it for me for a few hundred cash. 
He kindly took up my case, and, by refunding the 
money that had been paid, was able to break off 
the engagement Then came the telegram from 
Li Hung Chang saying that former schoolgirls 
were to be handed over to the photographer, and 
I returned to this city on 1 6th March, since which 
I have^ lived with his sister, who is a widow. I 
am looking forward with great pleasure to going 
to school in Peking." 

We are glad to be able to supplement Pu 
Tao's story by saying that her two brothers 
were also recovered, and are now in a Christian 
school in T'ai Yiian Fu. 


" My own home is far away among the moun- 
tains in the north-west of this province, at a place 
called Ning Wu Fu. When quite young I was 
brought to Shou Yang Hsien to be betrothed to 
the son of a friend of my father naMed Ts'ai. 
when he Becanie a Christian he sent me to the 
school at T'ai Yuan Fu, and I was there four 
years. During the trouble of last year he was 
bunted by the Boxers and killed, and his wife 
was buried alive. They were going to kill their 
son — my intended husband — when a military 
official who was standing by pleaded for his life, 
and said he would adopt him as his son. 

2o6 Fire and Sword in Shansi 

" I was in the school until 27th June of last 
year, and when on the night of that day the 
missionaries had to flee I followed them out and 
kept close to Mr. Stojces. Only two other giris 
(Ch'eo Niu and Pao Chu) besides myself were 
with the foreigners when we arrived at Mr. 
Farthing's house ; and where the other eight and 
Miss Coombs had gone we did not then know. 
The next day (28th) Mrs. Stokes asked a woman 
named Shih to take charge of us three, as she 
thought that would be the safest plan for us. 
This woman Shih did not take us to her own 
home, but to the house of a man named Wu. 
He was afraid to keep us, so after breakfast we 
went and hid in a ditch not far away, where we 
remained all day, returning at night to his house. 

" As everyone was afraid to have anything to 
do with those who had been connected with 
foreigners, the next day we went to a deserted 
theatre stage in a lonely part of the city, where 
we remained about a fortnight During this time 
the husband of the woman Shih occasionally 
brought us some food; and when no one was 
about we would creep out and eat the herbs 
and grass. Our hiding-place was then dis- 
covered by some soldiers, and they took us to 
the home of one of them in the city. After a 
few days Ch'eo Niu and Pao Chu were taken by 
some of the soldiers somewhere outside the city, 
but how long they remained there I do not 
know. Sometime after they were taken back to the 
house of the woman Shih, where tliey were when 

Mission House, Hospital Compound, T'al Yilan Fu. 
i Mrs LuNDCREN (martyred 15th August 1900) in doorway. 

Ruins of above. As the Miss 

Persecutions of the Native Church 207 

the telegram came from Peking for our release. 
Pao Chu is now married, and Ch'eo Niu has gone 
to her uncle's home. I myself remained in the 
soldier's home for three months, and was then 
sold for 40,000 cash to a family living about 20 
miles from the city to be the wife of the son, who 
was twenty years old. I was only there three 
months when the telegram came from Peking, 
and I was sent to the home of the Christian 

Chia Loh's betrothed having given up all 
claim to her, she is now married into a Christiaa 


'' I am seventeen years old, and belong to Shou 
Yang Hsien, When I was quite young I was 
betrothed to the son of Wang Keh Ih, who 
when he became a Christian sent me to the school 
at T'ai Yiian Fu, where I was for two years. 

^When the missionaries fled from the burn- 
ing buildings last year, I and another schoolgirl 
named Fu Jung could not go as quickly as the 
others, and Miss Coombs came back to help us. 
Before we had gone far, the people began to pelt 
us with stones and beat us with sticks. We both 
stumble and fell, and then Miss Coombs covered 
me with her body as well as she could, and said, 
' Don't fear ; we shall soon be in heaven, where 
we sludl meet again.' She was dragged away 
from me, and at the time I did not know what 

2o8 Fire and Sword in Shansi 

became of her, but heard afterwards she was 
pushed mto the fire and burnt to death. I think 
I should have been stoned to death had not a 
man dragged me through the crowd and taken 
me to his home. 

" I was there till 1 7th September, when he sold 
me to be a slave girl in the family of a well-to-do 
man named Hwang. There the lady of the 
house treated me very badly. When I entered 
the school at T'ai Yiian Fu my feet were unb ound, 

beat me for nothing at all with anything within 
her reach ; and when she could not beat me hard 
enough would call for her son, about 1 2 years old, 
to come and help her. Sometimes when beating 
me they would stuff cotton-wool into my mouth 
to prevent my crying. I was only there about 
two months when they sold me to a lady named 
Sheng, who was a great opium smoker. She too 
treated me very harshly, making me stand by her 
bedside all night to wait on her while she 
smoked her opium. She kept a horsewhip near 
her with which to beat me if I fell asleep. When 
it was nearly daylight she would say, ' Now you 
can go and sleep.* But, very soon after, I would 
have to get up to sweep the rooms. When the 
telegram came from Peking for my release she 
was most unwilling to let me ig[o, saying she 
would rather beat me to death. It was only 
when the y^men-runners who were sent for me 
promised that she should be refunded what she 
had paid for me that she allowed me to go." 

Persecutions of the Native Church 209 

Ai T'ao's prospective father-in-law was con- 
verted while in hospital at T'ai Yuan Fu, and on 
his return home gave ample evidence of true 
change of heart. When the Boxers broke out 
he was one of the marked men ; and, hearing 
they were approaching his house to arrest hiai, 
he and his wife fled and jumped into the village 
pond to escape torture. The wife was pulled 
out by some friends and saved, but the husband 
was drowned. The son managed to escape^ aiKl 
is now apprenticed to a carpenter, and probably 
married to Ai T'aa 


"I am now twelve years old, and my father's 
home is in Tai Yiian Hsien. Last winter I was 
betrothed to a man who was an assistant to the 
Christian photographer. He was anxious I should 
attend the Mission school, but it was not until 
last April that I was able to go. I was only 
there about three months when the trouble brok« 
out and we all had to flee. When the missionaries 
left the compound I was afraid to pass the fire 
that was burning at the gate, and Miss Coombs 
came back for me and carried me out, leaving me 
while she went back for Ai T'ao, who could not 
walk very well. Ai T'ao was much heavier than 
I was, so Miss Coombs could not carry her very 
far, and as they were walking to where I was 
waiting I saw them both stumble and fall. Upon 
this, a {nan who was standing near struck Miss 

2IO Fire and Sword in Shansi 

Coombs with a stick, while others pelted her with 
brickbats. She tried to shield Ai T'ao with her 
own body, but some men pulled her away, and to 
my horror I saw them push Miss Coombs into a 
pile of burning ruins. Several times she managed 
to escape, and appeared to be asking the men not 
to kill her. But she was pushed back ag^in and 
again, and at last they threw pieces of broken 
doors and other things on her to prevent her 

*^ Soon afterwards a man found me where I was 
crouching, and took me to his home. He first 
meant to sell me as a slave girl, and several 
women who act as dealers, or go-betweens, to 
obtain slaves for well-to-do people, came to see 
me. Fortunately for me, in the outer court of 
the house where I was living was an old man of 
sixty and his wife of forty-eight, who had no 
children, and they took a fancy to me. Eventually 
they offered to adopt me, and promised the man 
who had taken possession of me 15,000 cash. 
To this he agreed, and I then went to live with 
them. They were always kind to me, except 
that they made me re-bind my feet , which I had 
unbound when I went to the Mission school. 

" When the telegram came from Peking for all 
schoolgirls that could be found to be handed over 
to the Christian photographer, I was given up by 
my foster father and mother. I then met my 
betrothed, and, on telling him how well I had been 
treated, he was quite willing I should return to 
them until some other arrangement could be 

Persecutions of the Native Church 211 

made or it was time for me to be married. If 
school is opened again in T'ai Yiian Fu I should 
very much like to attend it" 

As Fuh Jung and her betrothed were both 
anxious that she should continue her education, 
she formed one of the party of seven girls who 
were placed in a Mission school at Peking. 

The first (of the Eleven) to see the Master on the other side wis 
St. James ; and if we questioned him he would doubtless declare 
he was not able to distinguish between the flash of the soldier's 
sword from the light of Jesus' garments.— Dr. John Watson 
(The Upper Room), 

I do not regret coming to China, but I am sony I have done so 
little. — Mrs. Atwatsr. 

If you never see me again, remember I am not sorry I have come 
to China. Whether I have saved anyone or not. He knows ; but it 
has been for Him, and we go to Him. Darling ones-^ood-bye. — 
RowsNA Bird. 

After all, it is not death which to us b sad, for it b God's 
present way for us into life; and we dare not say suffering b 
wholly sad other — not those of us who know some of the blessed 
things that have been taught us by suffering, which we prize too 
much to wish that we had never been taught — Edith Anna 
Coombs (in one of her last letters). 

If the Lord bids us, we will cheerfully lay down our lives for Hb 
sake. . . . If we are all killed and not one escape, there are many 
more that will be certain to take our place. — Herbert Dixon. 

I do not know whether thb (the report that all foreigners were to 
be killed) is true or not ; but, Dixon, if it is true, I am ready, and 
do not fear ; if such be God's will, I can even rejoice to die. — 
George B. Farthing. 

We are ready. —Arnold E. Lovitt. 

We leave it as a testimony to all who are wavering, who doubt, 
who deny — the grace of God is sufficient — Mrs. C. W. Price. 





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Memorials and Last Letters 

miss edith anna coombs 

EDITH ANNA COOMBS (bom in Edin- 
burgh, 1862) had a remarkably happy child- 
hood. Her parents had full faith in the power of 
gentleness combined with firmness, and no angry 
words^ were ever spoken to her or in her hearing. 
Punishment was unneeded, for her conduct was 
uniformly all her parents could desire. She 
seemed '' sanctified from her birth " ; and as intelli- 
gence dawned, and the knowledge of the love of 
Jesus was acquired, responsive love was kindled, 
and that love was ever growing to the very end. 

At the age of ten she entered the primary 
school of Neuch^tel ; and, though her knowledge 
of French was then but slight, she gained a 
prize in her first year. She entered Somerville 
Hall, Oxford, when about nineteen, and remained 
there four years, graduating in literature. Her 
first application for a post as teacher was to 
the Edgbaston High School; and, although of 
those applicants who were regarded as specially 
eligible she alone was without experience in class 


3T4 Fire and Sword in Shansi 

teaching, her testimonials were so excellent that 
she became the unanimous choice of the com- 
mittee. Her colleagues in the school testified 
to her aptitude for acquiring and skill in impart- 
ing knowledge, and very speoially to the great 
influence for good which she ever exerted upon 
all with whom she came in contact. One of 
them said : " She knows more about the g^rls 
than all the rest of the stafT put together, for they 
tell her everything, sure of ready sympathy. I 
worked with her nearly six years, and never saw 
her otherwise than sweet, bright, and helpful." 
Those who worked with her in China could all 
bear the same testimony. 

Dr. Dale's stimulating teaching and influence 
did much to fan the flame of her Christian zeal, 
and to deepen her_desire Jo "spend and ^ spent 
(or "-JestrsT Christ." His successor, Mr. jowett, 
wrotaT"~**-Slie was ever pre-eminently helpful in 
all the more distinctively spiritual work at Carr's 
Lane. I do not know any interest which has not 
sought and found her support, and her influence 
upon the susceptible minds of the thoughtful 
members of our young people's societies had been 
very deep." 

Strong and varied Jho^gl^ the ties wer^. that 
boutid^lier to home, the desirj&'ta-ixiak&Jaiown 
the light of the gospel to those whp^were^gitting 
in darkness and the. .shadow oldeath was stronger 
Still, arid in -i89S_. she joined the Shou. Yang 
Mission, and began work in T'ai Yiian Fu. Her 
letters liome were always full of joy and hope. 

Memorials and Last Letters 215 

Difficulties and trials were only hinted at In 
the last letter received by her father she wrote of 
her pupils : " Some of them are learning to be 
guided by a look. It teaches me a great deal 
to see this." But she had had to go through a 
great amount of patient, uninteresting toil before 
that. \ 

To one whose life at home had been so full 
of interest and variety, given up to happy active 
service for Christ, it was a great and trying 
change to settle down to the monotony of an 
inland mission station, with many hours' daily 
drudgery at a difficult language. She was, 
however, so bright and merry and full of life, 
that few could have guessed the loneliness she 
sometimes felt She longed intensely for the 
time when her lips would be unsealed to tell in 
Chinese the unsearchable riches of Christ, but 
in the waiting time her loving, unselfish service 
to others cannot have been without its result 
Wherever there was a little child to tend, or 
someone lonely or in sorrow, she was there to help 
and comfort That winter she took over the 
full charge of the Mission girls' school As 
soon as she was able, she organised a branch 
of the Christian Endeavour Society amongst the 
girls and women, and her great delight was to 
gather the elder Christian girls in her little room 
for an hour of prayer and quiet chat about the 

Edith Coombs' last act was a bright example 


2i6 F?fe and Sward in Shansi 

of Christian endeavour. When the Mission 
prenMses of which the school formed a part were 
attacked, her first care was for her little scholars. 
House aftcfr house on the compound was burnt, 
and at last the missionaries determined to make 
an effort to escape. On reaching the street Miss 
Coombs found that two of her little scholars had 
been left behind, and in the dark and excitement 
(for the street was filled with an angry mob) her 
companions did not miss her, as she went back 
alone to try and save the little giris. One was 
found and put in a place of safety. She went 
back for the other, found and brought her out 
on to the' street, when a false step, caudng her 
to stumble, was die signal for the angry crowd 
to begin to pelt them with stones. Vainly she 
attempted to protect her little charge with her 
own body ; then they were rudely, separated, 
and Miss Coombs was thrust once, twice, thrice 
into the flames as she endeavoured to escape. 
Thus she became the first Christian martyr of 
Shafisi, and 27th June will ever be a memorable 
day — a real Saint's Day — in the annals of 
missionary work in that province. She knew 
how " to suffer and be strong," and could say — 

** Christ leads me through no darker room 
Than He went through before." 

The following notice of her appeared in Laurel 
Leaves (the Journal of the Edgbaston High 
School for Girls), and is inserted by the courtesy 
of the editor : — 

Memorials and Last Letters 217 

"The recent events in China have awakened 
in the hearts of very many of the scholars, 
mistresses, and friends of this school a much 
deeper feeling than that of passive interest or 
faint sympathy, which is so apt to be the only 
effect of news of great trouble in far-off and 
unfamiliar lands, for they have cost us the life 
of one whom we have known and loved. 

" Only three short years have passed since Miss 
Coombs left us, and those who were privileged to 
know her during her eight years of work in our 
school feel that they have never met with a 
brighter and braver spirit than hers. To think 
of her is to think of sunshine ; and though this 
impression may have been partly the effect of her 
sunny hair and bright eyes, it is far more due to 
the sunny brightness of her nature. She was 
always cheerful, always abounding in ready 
helpfulness and love. Her constant sympathy 
made her the natural friend and comforter of all 
who were in trouble, and all who had cause for 
joy found their gladness reflected in her responsive 
smiles. It was thus that to her especially, as she 
sat in her form in the morning before school, or 
in the hall collecting the dinner money, all sorts 
of home and personal news, joys, sorrows and 
cares, hopes and ambitions, were confided. 

" Yet, though she gave herself so fully to this 
school and all its interests, her great quickness of 
intelligence and physical health - enabled her to 
spare time and thought for many who were not 
her pupils and colleagues here. There were her 

21 8 Fire and Sword in Shansi 

old pupils of the Aston Grammar School, where 
she taught for six years, Sunday-school pupils 
and teachers, factory and working girls, to whom 
she extended the same helpful and thoughtful 
love ; for, though she was always busy, she always 
found time to think of her many friends. 

** She had * ajiea rtatj eisur^ from i tself ; and so 
little did she speak of her own burdens, that when 
she confided to us that it had been for years her 
longing wish to go out to China as a missionary, 
the news came as something of a shock. 

'' It was the neglected condition of the women 
and children of China that especially appealed to 
her loving heart *You,' she said, when saying 
fi^rewell to the girls in this school, * have many to 
love you, but the poor little girls in China hardly 
know what love means.' She felt deeply the 
parting from all her friends here among girls and 
mistresses, but she faced it cheerfully, and begged 
us to let no unhappiness, no sadness, be in our 
thoughts for her. She knew well, that the parting 
might be for ever, and that in going out to China 
she must be ready to suffer death, if need be, in 
the cause she loved; but she was prepared to 
make that sacrifice gladly for the sake of the 
Master who had done as much for her. She 
knew the supreme happiness of those who had 
given up all to follow their ideal, and who have 
no misgivings. 

" So for the last three years she worked in the 
school for the children of native Christians at T*ai 
Yuan Fu, busied, at first especially, with the 

Mr John Robinson, B.A. {Lond.l. 

Memorials and Last Letters 219 

weary intricacies of the Chinese language, which 
her devotion and her mental gifts enabled her 
to master in a surprisingly short time; then 
grappling with the still more weary struggle 
against the obstinate prejudices, the want of 
straightforwardness, the want of trust and com- 
prehension of the native women and children. 
Her letters show how deeply she felt their sad 
condition — ^how she regretted, for instance, that 
prejudice forbade the games she would have liked 
to introduce among the g^rls ; but they also speak 
continually of her supreme happiness, and the last 
letter was one of the brightest of all ' I am so 
happy with the bairns ; in spite of all my want of 
understanding I get on so well with them that 
day after day is glad and bright, as the old day 
in the school life at E.H.S. used to be. Although 
I don't teach now in the sense in which I used, I 
am many hours a day in the schoolroom, and 
enjoy its doings, and watch its humanity with 

'* The cutting short of a life so fruitful and so full 
of promise, while as yet so little seemed accom- 
plished as we count accomplishment, must needs 
be a mystery to us ; and yet we know it was the \ 
supreme sacrifice of Christ which touched the ^ 
heart of the world ; and if the heart of that great 
and, as it seems to us, hopelessly enchained and 
bewildered Chinese nation is to be stirred to a 
sense of love and compassion, it must surely be 
by lives ' faithful unto death,' like hers. 

'* It is by individuals and by the use of each 


220 Fire and Sword in Shansi 

minute separate effort towards good that the work 
of God is carried on in the world. His kingdom 
* Cometh not with observation/ but 

'* * No earnest work 
Of aoy honest creature . , . fails so much ; 
It is not gathered as a grain of sand 
To enlai^e the sum of human actions used 
For carrying out God's ends.' 

> »f 

In the Birmingham Daily Post of 7th Septem- 
ber 1900 appeared the following appreciation of 
Miss Coombs by her pastor, and is reproduced here 
with Mr. Jowett's approval : — 

"Preadiing at Carr*s Lane Chapel last night, 
the Rev, J. H. Jowett referred to the news from 
Chma concerning Miss Coombs. He said news 
had come to the city to-day which touched their 
Church very closely. He did not know that it was 
unexpected, and, now that it had come, it almost 
staggered and benumbed them. About two years 
ago one of the finest of their girls left Carr's Lane 
and the city to take up missionary work in North 
China. Miss Coombs was beloved by everybody 
who knew her ; her culture was only exceeded by 
her piety, and she spent herself abundantly and 
lavishly in the welfare of her fellow-men. The news 
had come that on 27th June she was murdered; 
the hospital was destroyed, and he was afraid 
that the information was of so circumstantial a 
kind and of such a character that they must re- 
gard it as ultimate. He did not know of anybody 
who could meet a death like that better than theii 
friend Miss Coombs. He knew she would be a 

Memorials and Laat Letters 221 

perfect heroine. She was a beixMne here, and he 
thought, if she could have been told before she went 
out to China that she would become a martyr, she 
would have gloried in her calL He could not but 
think that a death like hers must ultimately be for 
the propagation of the truth. He asked them to 
join with him in prayer, and said that their prayer 
should not be filled with lamentings, but rather 
widi thanksgiving that such a woman had been 
amongst them, and laboured amongst them, and 
given herself for Christ'' 


The desire of Mary Duval's heart had always 
been to work for the Master in the foreign field ; 
but first the care of her widowed mother, and 
subsequently her school, and keeping the home 
tc^ether fen- her younger sisters, prevented her 
offering herself in her earlier days. However, as 
time went on, the way cleared. Her wish had 
been to go to India as a C.M.S. missionary, but 
as at the time of offering she was forty-two years 
of age the door was closed to her. It was a 
grievous disappointment, but she would not be 
discouraged, and God honoured her desire by 
sliding her to labour and die for Him in China. 

It was before the call really came to her, that, 
after reading the book about the massacre of Mr. 
and Mrs. Stewart at Ku Cheng, she remarked that 
now all dread of going to China was taken away. 
It was while awaiting a vacancy in the South 


222 Fire and Sword in Shansi 

American Mission, by which she had been accepted, 
that she received Mrs. Pigott's offer to go to China 
and help in the work at Shou Yang, especially in 
the education of the English-speaking children. 
She accepted it as God's call ; and from that time, 
all through her preparations for the long journey 
and life in that distant land, she was intensely 
happy. After leaving England, in January 1 899, 
she never had a regret for the step she had taken. 
Writing on shipboard, she quoted 

" God holds the key of all unknown, 
And I am glad," 

and on arriving at her destination in May she 
wrote : " I did feel joyful when my litter was carried 
in through the gates of the Shou Yang Mission 
house. I knew that my journey was over for 
some time." A very toilsome journey it had been 
from Pao Ting Fu — four days across the sandy 
plains of Chihli, and four more over the rugged 
mountains of Shansi, resting at midday and every 
night in dirty, comfortless inns. Her fortnightly 
letters were full of brightness. Over and again she 
has said, " Tell everyone how happy I am." 

" So," as her sister writes, " in the midst of our 
grief, not only for the terrible loss we have sus- 
tained, but also for the awful suffering she was 
called upon to go through, we can but be glad 
that God gave her the desire of her heart We 
can rejoice in her present joy, and that she was 
* counted worthy to suffer for Him.' " * 

^ All Nations t April 1901. 

Memorials and Last Letters 223 

The following letter was one of the last written 
by her. It never reached its destination, as when 
the messenger who carried it was half-way to T'ai 
Yuan Fu he heard of the riot there and turned 
back, only to find that the Shou Yang missionaries 
had had to flee. He kept this and several other 
letters until an opportunity presented itself of 
sending them to us at Peking. 

^< My dearest Mrs. Stokes, — It is decided 
that I am to go to you with Mr. Atwater. I felt 
it would be too much for you to have another in 
the house, and made up my mind I would not go. 
However, Mr. and Mrs. Pigott have talked it 
over, and they thought it would be wiser for me 
to go, because things might happen which would 
necessitate our leaving here ; there are only three 
horses, and I cannot ride, and it would be a 
difficulty how to do. Looking at it in this light, 
I felt perhaps it is right, and then Mrs. Pigott 
says I can perhaps help you in your duties, 
which will be heavier than usual. So, dear, it is 
with this hope in my mind that I am coming to 
you, and thank you very, very much for wishing 
me to come. I do hope you have not had any 
more headaches ; also I hope Nieh is a help. 

" These are not nice times we are living in ; it 
is a trial, but we remember *the trial of your 
faith being much more precious,' etc. The 
meetings are still going on, and our dear Chinese 
brothers and sisters are bright and trusting. It 

224 Fire and Swcu-d m Shansi 

is like passing through 'the refiner's fire.' This 
day last week you left us ; it seems ages ago. We 
had a happy time at the baptism. I wish you 
could have stayed for it. We hear the Fut'ai is 
coming through in a day or two on his way to 
Peking ; rumour says he is going to ask perims- 
sion to kill the foreigners. This amuses us, for 
that being the case he would hardly let it be 
known. It seems to us more likely that he is 
summoned to give an account oPhis own doings ; 
I hope he will never come back. Another 
rumour says that a gpeat something has risen up 
In the sea, so that no foreign warships can come 
near and no foreign troops land. It is just as 
well for them to know that foreign troops have 
already landed. Now I must stop. Please give 
my kind remembrances to Mr. Stokes, and, with 
much love for yourself^ — I remain, yours affec- 

*' Mary Duval. 

" PS. — If my skirt is not begun, please wait till 
I see you, A text that has cheered me so much 
is, ^Thou wilt keep him in VEKFECT peace whose 
mind is stayed on Thee.' 

** Oh that the rain would come I We had a 
beautiful thunderstorm last week, but it did not 
last long." 
■ ««» 

In another letter of the same date she says: 
" There are horrid rumours, but God is keeping us 
trusting; and looking up to Himi away from all 
else, jgrves peace.'' 

Memorials ftnd Last Letters 225 


Alexander Hoddle was the fourth son of the 
late Mr. William Hoddle of the Bank of England, 
in which he was also for a short time. Leaving 
it he went out to Canada, where he remained ten 
years. While there he made the acquaintance 
of some Quakers, and through them was led to 
think more seriously of doing what he could for 
the spiritual welfare of others. On returning to 
England he settled in Newcastle, and became 
Secretary of the Y.M.CJV., taking up Mission 
work amongst the sailors, and being specially 
interested in the Chinese sailors. After hearing 
Mr. Pigott plead the cause of China, he joined the 
China Inland Mission in 1887, and worked in 
Huai Luh and Pao Ting Fu and the villages of 

Afterwards, as an independent missionary, he 
threw himself with energy into the work in T'ai 
Yuan, taking charge of the bookshop, teaching, 
preaching, and d!^g,. fflftch^ ex.angelistic work in 
private conversation. At one time he partly 
supported KlinfiseTf by teaching English to Chinese 
students. He was a truly self-denying man, 
giving himself heart and soul to Christ for the 
salvation of the Chinese, many of whom were 
much attached to him. Mr. Hoddle had an 
invitation, in the last year of his life, from a 
well-known missionary in Tientsin to teach Eng- 
lish there in connection with their Mission ; " but," 
he said, " I cannot see my way to accept it. 


226 Fire and Sword in ShansS 

God has hitherto so graciously provided for my 
needs, that, so far as I can see, He wants me to 
remain here in T'ai Yiian Fu, for the present at 
least." 1 

In the spring of 1900 he accompanied Mr. 
Alexander Grant to the coast, and when at 
Tientsin was urged by his friends to leave for 
England on furlough, as he was not well, and had 
been in China for more than ten years without a 
break. But he felt constrained to return to 
Shansi, saying he would go for his furlough '' in 
the autumn.'' He started on his inland journey, 
reaching T'ai Yiian Fu about the end of May, 
and was among the thirty-three Protestants who 
obtained the martyr's crown on 9th July. 



Dr. Lovitt received his medical education at 
the medical college connected with the London 
Hospital, and, after obtaining his diplomas, acted 
for a year or so as resident physician to the 
Mildmay Hospital, London. It was while there 
that he became acquainted with Mr, Pigott, who 
was on furlough, and who "ivas looking out for a 
young doctor who would be willing to go to Shansi 
and take up the work of the Schofield Memorial 
Hospital. Dr. Lovitt joined us in T'ai Yiian 
Fu in the autumn of 1897. His wife was the 

^ All Nations^ March 1901. 

Memorials and Last Letters 227 

daughter of Mr. Alexander Grant, who for many 
years was a missionary at Singapore, and who 
spent the winter of 1899— 1900 with his daughter 
and her husband, leaving Shansi just before the 
great trouble began. 

Dr. and Mrs. Lovitt applied themselves to the 
language directly on arrival, and he was always 
ready to help in all the more serious operations. 
While very keen on good " cases," he never lost 
sight of the great object of the work of a medical 
missionary, and took great interest in the evangel- 
istic part of the work. 

In the spring of 1 899 he assumed entire charge 
of the hospital, having been in China only eight- 
een months. The general work of the station 
was in the hands of Mr. George W. Stokes, who, 
with his wife, was among those whom we so 
deeply lament. Mrs. Lovitt, having been fully 
trained as a nurse at the London Hospital, was 
well able to second her husband's efforts, and 
took charge of the routine work among the 
\^omen. From the letters received from them 
after we left, it was easy to see that they at 
once threw themselves heartily into the work, 
and were alive to the responsibility resting upon 
them. It was a great joy to know that every- 
thing was carried on so efficiently. 

One of his last letters contained an order for 
medical and surgical stores which were to carry 
him over the next winter, and he was looking 
forward to further useful and happy service, when 
the storm burst upon them suddenly and unex- 

228 Fire and Sword in Shansi 

pectedly. Our hearts are still sore, and we 
mourn the loss of dearly loved friends and 
fellow - workers ; yet we are assured that He 
doeth all things well, and what we know not 
now we shall know hereafter. 

His last letter, written after the burning of 
the hospital, was entrusted to a faithful Chinese 
servant, who forwarded it to me when he heard I 
was in Peking, and has already been referred to. 

By Mr, A, Grant 

Arnold E. Lo\itt was born in or near London 
on 4th February 1869, and so was in his thirty- 
second year at the time of his unexpected death 
at the hands of the Governor of Shansi, on 9th 
July. His father is a partner in the firm of 
Warren, Hall, & Lovitt of Camden Town ; and 
Arnold was not unnaturally drawn to a studious 
life, and finally the career of a medical missionary. 

Having finished his course at London Hospital 
and taken his qualification, he was for a time in 
charge of the Mildmay Hospital in Bethnal Green, 
under the superintendence of Dr. Gauld, formerly 
of China. His desire was toward foreign mission- 
ary service, to which eventually he gave himself 
in connection with the lamented Thos. W. Pigott 
of the Shou Yang Mission. 

On the essential question of his conversion to 
God, so far as the time and circumstances are 
concerned, the writer cannot speak definitely, 
further than to state with joyfulness his con- 

Memorials and Last Letters 229 

viction that Arnold had passed from death to 
life, and during the short period of our acquaint- 
ance lived a godly life in Christ Jesus. 

Latterly he enjoyed the clear gospel ministry 
of Mr. Archibald J. Brown of the East London 
Tabernacle, with which he united himself, and 
from which he may be said to have gone forth 
to China. The commendatory prayer -meeting 
previous to his departure was held in that 
building, where fervent effectual prayer had long 
been made. 

In the autumn of 1897 he with his wife, the 
beloved daughter of the writer, left Southampton 
by the North German steamer Preussen^ arriving 
in due course at Shanghai ; thence to Tientsin by 
local steamer, and from that to T'ai Yiian Fu by 
boat as far as Pao Ting Fu, now noted for blood 
of saints shed there, and then by road to their 
destination, a journey of six or eight days. 

He commenced hospital work earlier than 
would have been in other circumstances desir- 
able, as Dr. Edwards, who was conducting the 
work of the Schofield Memorial Hospital, was 
on the eve of returning to England in the spring 
of 1 899. For a young worker to give the first 
six or twelve months of his time in China to the 
language, and especially to the study of the word 
of God in view of work in a heathen land, so as 
to adjust himself to his new position, and learn all 
he can of the mind of God in reference to such 
service among idolaters, would be advisable in 
ordinary circumstances. As events have turned 

230 Fire and Sword in Shansi 

out, it was doubtless well that work was com- 
menced at once. 

Of his self-denying and painstaking labour in 
the trying and often repulsive work of the 
hospital, and also outside it, the writer had the 
privilege of being witness during over ten weeks 
in the dwelling of Dr. and Mrs. Lovitt last 

To his readiness to meet the frequent and 
sometimes unseasonable calls of patients, as well 
as to the assiduity and conscientious service of 
his beloved partner, also trained as a nurse at 
London Hospital, and to the faithful service in 
the gospel, whether his in the gatherings of the 
T'ai Yiian Fu English community, or hers among 
native women, thankful testimony is due. 

The favourable impression produced by the 
long - continued medical work in the city and 
region cannot be doubted, nor can it be ques- 
tioned but the massacre of the workers is 
regarded by the best of the inhabitants with 
sorrow and abhorrence. 

The advent of a Governor willing to carry out 
the exterminating edicts of the Empress-Dowager, 
issued, it is believed, on the taking of the Taku 
forts, led to the extinction of the band of workers 
in T*ai Yiian and elsewhere in Shansi. 

What is done cannot be undone ; but if the true 
gospel of the grace of God is more than ever 
declared in China in connection with these events, 
it will be well. Resurrection glory will finally 
crown all. 

Memorials and Last Letters 231 


By Mr. George /^ Trench 

The subjects of this brief sketch were victims 
of the massacre in China of last July. In the 
manner detailed below these beloved servants of 
Christ passed in to their coronation as martyrs 
of the Lord Jesus from T'ai Yiian Fu, smitten 
by assassin hands. 

Bom on 6th August 1847, Mr. Pigott was the 
eldest of the six children of William Wellesley 
Pole Pigott by his marriage with Lucy Trench, 
niece of the first Lord Ashtown. The whole 
family was in the Lord's service. But two now 
survive — his youngest brother, the physician of 
the Dublin Medical Mission, and his sister Mary, 
sometime engaged in Mission work at Bloem- 

The atmosphere of Mr. Pigott's home at 
Leixlip, on the richly wooded bank of the 
beautiful Liffey, was deeply and actively Christian. 
While little more than a boy he helped his father 
in his daily labour of presenting Christ to the 
poorest of the people gathered at his door to receive 
his charity and hear the message of salvation. 

When the great awakening of 1862 moved 
mightily Ireland's midland and southern provinces, 
Rye Vale, the Pigotts* home, was thrown open 
to the preachers, and numbers too large for its 
space pressed in to hear the truth proclaimed. 

232 Fire and Sword in Shansi 

Tom, who not long before had been led to Christ 
by a remarkable answer to his boyish prayer, soon 
became anxious to join in the work of saving souls. 

Little did I imagine when encouraging the 
young man to speak at a cottage meeting near 
Dublin in 1868, to what life and death issues 
the first halting effort would lead. The manly 
form, the radiant expression, the merry laugh, 
the deep and overflowing enthusiasm for Christ, 
marked him for a successful missionary. 

If ever a man lived who was utterly in earnest, 
it was Thomas Wellesley Pigott Whenever he 
returned to this country from his chosen field of 
labour, his flowing speech, in private and public, 
was always and only of China and her people, 
whom he loved so much. It was impossible to 
remain indifferent or unsympathetic in the pres- 
ence of such zeal. It wounded his spirit, it 
grieved him as something unaccountable, inex- 
plicable, that others should not feel the interest, 
the sorrow, and the joy with which he was filled. 
And this was no mere sentiment; it was such 
a reality that to spend his time, his strength, his 
mental and physical abilities, and his money freely 
and wholly in the cause of China was to him 
the most natural, and for him the only reasonable 
and possible, way to live. 

Mr, Sowerb/s Narrative 

Mr. Arthur Sowerby, an intimate friend and 
worker in China, writes — 


.• -^ 

Memorials and Last Letters 233 

" Twenty years ago Mr. Pigott, B.A. of Dublin 
University, with his fine physical development, 
and possessed of private means, stood on the \ ,v 
threshold of his work in China, where he had 
come at Christ's bidding to consecrate all he was 
iand had to the Master's cause, and the salvation 
of the Chinese people. 

" I recall the first time I met him. I had 
then only been a few days in China, and I 
remember his hearty and genial greeting, the 
warm brotherly handshake, and the pleasant chat 
that followed in the sitting-room of the C.I.M. 
at Chefoo. 

" A few weeks later I was travelling with others 
across the plain of Chihli. It was in December 
1 88 1, and we were pressed by circumstances 
to travel quickly. Mr. Pigott might have joined 
our party and have enjoyed some pleasant 
companionship; but it was characteristic of him 
to prefer loneliness, and to lengthen his journey, 
although the weather was bitterly cold, that he 
might do some evangelistic work along the road. 
An intense zeal for the conversion of men was 
always a marked feature in our brother's character. 

"Arrived at T'ai Yuan Fu, Mr. Pigott gave 
himself up to a more thorough study of the 
Chinese language. He had been in China about 
two years, but had been travelling with Mr. 
Cameron in Manchuria, where on one occasion 
he nearly perished with cold, and his study of 
Chinese had been much interrupted. 

** In the spring of 1883 the community of 

234 "P^^ ^^d Sword in Shansi 

missionaries in T'ai Yiian Fu were alarmed and 
upset by an attack on Mr. Pigott by a Chinese 
burglar. The thief had made several robberies 
from other missionaries, and had secured some 
dinner-knives, including a carving-knife from Dr. 
Schofield. One of the smaller knives he had 
converted into a saw, and by means of this had 
effected an entry into the room where Mr. Pigott 
was sleeping. Mr. Pigott was awakened by the 
incessant coughing of an elderly man, a Christian 
evangelist, and rose while it was yet dark to 
procure some medicine for the sufferer. He 
discovered the thief under a table, and attempted 
to secure him. A terrible struggle ensued, in 
which, although badly wounded, Mr. Pigott ob- 
tained the mastery, and the thief was captured. 
Mr. Pigott then, holding a wet sponge to his 
bleeding head, ran as hard as his strength would 
allow, in the early grey of the morning, to Dr. 
Schofield's house, when his strength gave way. 
For some weeks he needed the careful nursing 
and skilful medical attention that was lovingly 
given him. 

** About the same time Miss Jessie and Miss 
Florence Kemp, of Rochdale, arrived in T'ai 
Yiian Fu. They had left all the attractions of 
their English home and of English society to join 
in the hard and strenuous work of evangelising 
the Chinese. In those days life in the interior of 
China involved many hardships, and there were 
but the fewest comforts. 

" Miss Jessie Kemp had previously been 

Memorials and Last Letters 235 

engaged in Mission work in India, but had been 
compelled to leave that field, as her constitution 
was unfitted to endure the fierce, sultry climate. 

" Most of the missionaries then resident in T'ai 
Yiian Fu were fitting themselves for future labours, 
and Dr. Schofield gave lectures on ophthalmic 
surgery, with special reference to the treatment 
of cataract. Miss Jessie Kemp proved herselt 
a most apt pupil, and subsequently many times 
operated for cataract with marked success. 

''In 1883 an engagement was entered into 
between Miss Jessie Kemp and Mr. Pigott, and 
they were married at Peking in August of the 
same year. 

"In the summer of 1883 Dr. Schofield, to 
the unspeakable grief of all, was fatally stricken 
by typhus fever, and Mr. and Mrs. Pigott 
returned to T'ai Yiian Fu to take up the work 
from which the beloved physician had been 
removed. Throughout the winter our friends 
kept both medical and evangelistic work going, 
and it was remarkable how much Mr. Pigott 
was able to accomplish alone, until the arrival of 
Dr. E. H. Edwards relieved him of the care of 
the hospital. 

"During the next few years Mr. Pigott was 
largely occupied in the construction of the Scho- 
field Memorial Hospital. By the devotion of time 
and labour, and by their pecuniary gifts, Mr. and 
Mrs. Pigott did much to secure the erection of 
handsome and suitable premises, and thus greatly 
aided in the valuable work done for so many years 

236 Fire and Sword in Shansi 

fn connection with that institution. Only those 
who were in Tai YUan Fu could form any just 
appreciation of the burdensome and vexatious 
character of such work ; but, while struggling with 
Chinese workmen, evangelistic efforte were never 
neglected, and every endeavour was made to con- 
vert the Chinese of all classes. 

" Mr. and Mrs. Pigott visited England in 1885 
and again in 1 890, and on their return to China 
in 1 891 were accompanied by other friends, with 
whom they hoped to form a band of independ- 
ent labourers. It was thought possible to evan- 
gelise the district of Lu An Fu in S.E. Shansi ; 
but unforeseen difficulties arose, and our friends 
settled at Shou Yang, 80 miles east of T*ai 
Yiian Fu, Shou Yang is a market town of some 
importance on the main road to Peking and the 
coast. ^Amidst much opposition, and with many 
difficulties to encounter, our friends and their 
colleagues built up a steady work, and brought the 
light of Christ's gospel into many homes, and the 
joy of Christ's peace into many darkened hearts. 

" In 1 896 Mr. and Mrs. Pigott were again able 
to visit their friends, as it proved, for the last time. 
Mr. Pigott was anxious to secure a committee in 
England to assist him in his work at Shou Yang, 
but ill-health prevented him carrying this project 
into effect In the autumn of this year our friends 
suffered a severe blow in the tragic death of Miss 
Ellen K. Brown, who lost her life by the upsetting 
of the cart, in which she was travelling, into the 
river. A very dear relative and friend, and most 

Ml T. W. PlGOTT. 

Memorials and Last Letters 237 

valued colleague, was thus lost to them and to the 
work of the Lord. 

" Last year Mr. and Mrs. Pigott ojice more 
returned to China, and, after having been for some 
years crowded in small and unsuitable quarters, 
they were gratified at being able to obtain 
larger and more commodious yards, and were 
erecting some suitable premises that were greatly 
needed. Among other projects, our friends were 
arranging for a school for the children of mission- 
aries in Shansi, and had alieady had nine other 
children for a time under their charge. This was 
a most generous and kind purpose, and promised 
to be exceedingly useful. 

" The terrible events of last summer have bereft 
the Christian Church of two noble and devoted 
missionaries, and the Chinese have, alas 1 killed 
those who were entirely their friends. What 
exactly they suffered, with their governess. Miss 
Duval, and tutor, Mr. Robinson, both wholly in 
sympathy with missionary work, and their own 
dear boy, Wellesley, is perhaps mercifully hidden 
from our eyes. 

" It would not do to close these few lines without 
testifying how kind and good our friends were to 
the Chinese, and how much loved they were in 
return. One of our leading evangelists, in no way 
connected with Mr. Pigott, said : * I do like to 
hear him preach, he is so full of love.' At one of 
our Chinese conferences Mr. Pigott gave a most 
valuable address on the Lord's Second Coming, 
which was much appreciated by all '. while, at our 

238 Fire and Sword in Shansi 

conference held last February in T'ai Yiian Fu, 
Mr. Pigott preached the sermon on Sunday morn- 
ing with much power and unction, and Mrs. Pigott 
took the lead in addressing the women. 

" Stunned by their loss, we can but humbly bow 
our heads before God, thankful for lives of such 
noble devotedness, thankful for their triumphant 
death, and meekly beseeching that He will comfort 
their loved ones who remain, and mercifully re- 
build the work that has been so cruelly overthrown, 
so that * the Son of God may yet be manifested ' 
in Shou Yang, to destroy the works of the devil^ 
and deliver them who have been for ages subject 
to his bondage." 

Both Mr. and Mrs. Pigott had been, during the 
earlier portion of their life in China, in connection 
with the China Inland Mission ; and although sub- 
sequently, as Mr. Sowerby has stated, they were led 
to found a Mission on independent lines, continued 
to the end of their lives in hearty sympathy with 
that noble association. In 1 896 Mr. Pigott wrote 
of the C.I.M. as "a Mission which we love," and 
said : " We and they (Dr. and Mrs. Edwards) shall 
always desire to help in every way the old work, and 
only regret the causes which have led to severance 
of the bonds of organisation — not of Christian 
fellowship and co-operation, if we can help it." 

Both of these devoted workers were deeply 
absorbed in their work of soul-winning, and never 
lost an opportunity of speaking for Christ, often 
in much weariness and weakness of body. They 

Memorials and Last Letters 239 

had laid themselves and their means on the altar 
of consecration to God ; and their son Wellesley 
was following in their steps. He began last 
December teaching a class of Chinese boys in 
Sunday school. A little while before going back 
to China he said : " We can't be martyrs in 
England, but my mother and father and I might 
be in China." It was a remarkable forecast, and 
was shared by his mother, who after the Ku 
Cheng massacre wrote : " It make^ one feel how 
short our time for work in this land may be, and 
long to be filled with God^s Holy Spirit that we 
may be faithful to the end." And again : ** If 
God's infinite grace is to conform us to the image 
of His Son, may it not be, in our work for Him, we 
may need to know something of what He suffered ? " 

Mr. Stanley Smith writes — 

" Though my acquaintance with Mr. and Mrs. 
Pigott was not of long duration, their force of 
character has left very distinct impressions on my 
mind. Mr. Pigott was as generous and large- 
hearted as Mrs. Pigott was capable and courageous. 
Their love to the Chinese was a characteristic which 
showed itself as soon as you knew them." 

Nothing would, I am convinced, have been 
more distasteful to these loved friends than the 
idea that anything should be written for their 
exaltation. The foregoing record is not to be 
taken in that way. I know of no one to whom 
more than to them the words of St. Paul applied : 
" According to my earnest expectation and hope, 
tliat in nothing I shall be put to shame, but that 

240 Fire and Sword in Shansi 

with all boldness, as always, so now also Christ 
shall be magnified in my body, whether by life or 
by death. For to me to live is Christ, and to die 
is gain." " I hold not my life dear unto myself, so 
that I may accomplish my course and the ministry 
which I received from the Lord Jesus, to testify 
the gospel of the grace of God." 

Where lives of such entire consecration to God 
and love to souls are given, the crown of martyrdom 
may be said to be their fitting climax and glory .^ 

In March 1902 a memorial tablet, erected in 
West Street Baptist Chapel, Rochdale, to com- 
memorate the martyrdom of Mr. and Mrs* Pigott 
and their son, was unveiled by Rev. Dr. Maclaren 
of Manchester. Before unveiling the tablet he 
gave the following address : — 

"As I came to Rochdale this afternoon I 
passed the old house in which, more than a 
generation ago, I first saw the little girl whose 
martyrdom we gratefully, commemorate this 
evening. As I entered your railway station, 
prosaic enough place for such a memory, I 
recalled the last time when I looked into the 
loving eyes, in which there was a sweet light of 
devotion, of the gracious, gentle, godly woman 
whom we mourn, and yet rejoice over, to-night 
Few of you, I suppose, can share with me these 
memories; but I trust that all of us feel the 
solemnity and the inspiration, and perhaps, for 
some of us, the rebuke of this moment. My 
friend Dr. Edwards can speak far better than I 

^ The Christian, November 190a 

Memorials and Last Letters 241 

can of the circumstances of the last scene. I 
have but imperfect knowledge of that picture of 
the family going slowly, day by day, nearer to 
w hat they knew was likely tQ _b£-ihe broody end 
— the father taking every o pportu nity of preaching 
the gospel, the mother and child, ah ! we leave 
thST; only, tKe unblemished cause of the Master 
was wit h-tbem, and they went to their deaths 
among the last recruits to the noble army of 
martyrs. And may I, as we are gathered here 
to-night as friends, gathered by sympathy and 
not merely by curiosity, — may I, as a very old 
friend, speak of the martyrdom of those who in 
Rochdale have borne a heavy load of sorrow. 
There are martyrs who live as well as martyrs 
who die, and God be thanked for the patience of 
the one and the heroism of the others. Both 
come from one source — the indwelling life of that - . 
Christ who knew ho W tO'lfve and how to die. 

"-What -does "this memorial tablet say to us ? 
We have been treated in past years to a great 
many supercilious and depreciatory estimates of 
Christian missionaries by people who know very 
little about them, and care less about the word 
which they carry. I would like to plant some of 
these cheap scoffers in front of this tablet and 
tell them the story it commemorates. I think, 
for very shame, their lips would be silenced for 

" The tablet speaks to us of what we sometimes 
sorely need to have freshened to our consciences 

•the continual presence of our Lord with His 
16"""""""' " ' "'" 


- ^. 

242 Fire and Sword in Shansi 

disciples, and the continual power, to-day as of 
old, of that in-breathed and all-conquering life. 
It sets before us dear friends who gave them- 
selves to Jesus Christ, gave their sympathy, their 
work, without stint, to those people to whom they 
were so eager to take the gospel. They did 
not know that the mightiest proclamation of their 
Lord would be that which would go forth by 
their death. Like the hero of the Old Book, they 
shook the pillars of the idol temple when they 
died, far more than they ever did whilst they 
lived. Yes ; the blood of the martyrs is the seed 
of the Church. Dr. Ecfwards will, no doubt, tell 
you how the prospects of the harvest upon these 
furrows, watered by this dear blood, are brighter 
than they have ever been before; and sure I am 
that if Jessie Pigott and her husband — ah ! and 
their little boy — had been told when they went 
into T'ai Yiian Fu for the last time that they 
were to die in order that the stones of Christ's 
temple in China, cemented by their blood, might 
stand the firmer, th^ would have been thankful, 
and would have said, ' I am ready to be offered 
a sacrifice for God.* There never yet has been 
any g^reat cause which has been advanced in the 
world unless its advocates have been ready to 
die ; and the last thing I would venture to suggest, 
as speaking to you from this white marble, is the 
close and searching question for us all: 'Am I 
so knit by faith, by love, by inspiration, by 
enthusiasm in its good sense, to my Lord that 
my daily life is a death to self?' Thank God, 

Wang Ten Ren (maityied July 1900) and his Bride on their wedding day. 
The l^te Mr and Mrs PICOTT in the doorway. 

Courtyard of a Buddhist Temple 

Memorials and Last Letters 243 

very ordinary Christian people, when they are 
brought face to face with the fiery trial of martyr- 
dom, do seem to start up into a new greatness. 
We are not Christians unless we can to some 
extent live the daily life of self- crucifixion, 
self-abandonment, self-immolation. It now de- 
volves upon me, and I count it a great honour, to 
unveil this memorial, which I hope will long keep 
the members of this congregation in mind of one 
whose memory those who knew her will ever 


John Robinson was bom at Doncaster on 
1st September 1875, ^^^ father and both his 
grandfathers (who were then living) being clergy- 
men of the Established Church. From an early 
age he cherished the desire to be a missionary to 
the heathen. 

As he was of a studious turn of mind, it was 
thought best that he should have a classical 
education, which would help, rather than hinder, 
in the purpose to which he steadily adhered. 
His natural disposition was retiring and reticent, 
but in his conduct he manifested something of 
the depth and reality of his religious feelings. 
Trained in Scripture knowledge from childhood, 
he was a diligent Bible student for himself, and 
while at the Blackheath Proprietary School joined 
a Bible Class which had been formed by some of 
the elder boys for mutual study of the word on 

244 Pire and Sword in Shansi 

Sunday afternoons. During his school life he 
was a conscientious worker, and finally took his 
degree at the London University in 1 896. 

His spiritual experience was deepened by a 
brief holiday visit to Cliff College, Dr. Grattan 
Guinness's Missionary Training Home in Derby- 
shire. On his return he desired to associate 
himself with some definite Christian work, and 
became a member of the Blackheath Y.M.C.A., 
where he was soon engaged in helping in the 
meetings, open-air services, tract distribution in 
public-houses, and latterly as secretary. This 
happy connection lasted until he left England. 

He had decided views on the subject of be- 
lievers' baptism, and in the autumn of 1896 was 
baptized by the Rev. F. G. French, the pastor 
of Lee Chapel, and remained a member there. 

In the summer of 1898 an offer was made 
him by Mr. Pigott, of the Shou Yang Mission, to 
go to China for three years as tutor to his son, 
and the sons of any other missionaries stationed 
near who might desire to avail themselves of the 
opportunity for their children. This seemed to 
be an opening for the life he so much desired, as 
he would have facilities for learning Chinese, 
gaining an insight into missionary methods and 
difficulties, and some knowledge of the customs 
and character of the people. All hindrances to 
his accepting the offer were eventually removed, 
and he sailed on 2nd January 1899. On the 
voyage out his letters "were full of interest, the 
^cripttons of scenery and first impressions of 

Memorials and Last Letters 245 

China, and her curious interesting people, being 
especially vivid. 

The long journey over, he began the work of 
teaching, and the personal study of Chinese with 
a native teacher ; attended the services, and was 
soon able to follow part of the addresses in the 
strange language. 

The routine of his work was pleasantly and 
profitably varied by intercourse with missionaries, 
and he wrote warmly of the kindness and hos- 
pitality extended to him in T'ai Yiian Fu during 
his holidays. These helpful visits were a useful 
stimulus to mind and body. His letters con- 
tained interesting references to the missionary 
work going on around him. 

His first allusion to the Boxer moven^ent was 
in a letter dated Shou Yang, Shansi, 2nd Feb- 
ruary 1900: "The rising of men called Boxers 
in Shantung and Chihli is serious there^ but I do 
not think there is any danger of their coming here. 
They have done it in the east before, but Shansi 
men are more apathetic. An S.P.G. man has 
fallen a martyr, but you will probably have details 
soon enough." 

In the last letter received from him he writes, 
under date 1 3th May : " The rain is wanting still. 
Famine seems almost in sight. . . . Prayer has 
been made earnestly and continually for rain. Is 
it to be, or is a visitation of calamity decreed ? 
Well, may we and the people be helped to trust 
. . . whatever^* — 

The end of the sentence has been death and 

246 Fire and Sword in Shansi 

glory for the writer and many of the sorely tried 
people among whom he wrought. His life was cut 
short at the early age of twenty-four; yet "he 
liveth long who liveth well/' and his influence 
remains in the minds and hearts of many.^ 



Mr. and Mrs. Simpson, after some eight years' 
connection with the China Inland Mission, returned 
to China towards the end of 1 896 as members of 
the Shou Yang Mission. 

Along with other young men, Mr. Simpson was 
first led to serious thoughts of the foreign field 
at a missionary meeting held in the Aberdeen 
Y.M.C.A., and addressed by Dr. Laws of the 
Livingstone Mission, Central Africa. The im- 
pressions then made were confirmed by the visit 
of Mr. Hudson Taylor ; and a subsequent visit of 
the late Mr. Figott, followed by a personal inter- 
view, resulted in both he and his wife deciding to 
offer themselves for work in China. 

Mr. and Mrs. Simpson had been zealous 
workers in connection with Melville Free Church 
and also the Y.M.C.A. and Y.W.C.A., winning 
a good report by their untiring and unselfish 
service. While at home on furlough they com- 
mended themselves, in a very marked and unusual 
way, to a large and increasing circle of friends, by 
their singular devotedness to the vast needs of 
China and the claims of our Lord and Saviour. 

^ AU NtUims. 

Memorials and Last Letters 247 

At a largely attended and enthusiastic farewell 
meeting held in the Y.M.C.A., Aberdeen, on 3rd 
September 1 896, they were commended to God 
by cheering word and fervent prayer; and the 
following text, which had eight years before been 
given as a parting word, was once again quoted 
and commented on as expressing both mind and 
heart of all present : '^ G >d is able to make all 
grace abounjd toward you ; that ye, always having 
all sufficiency in all thinps, may abound to every 
good work " ; but little did those who gave that 
text think in what direction the ^* grace abound- 
ing" would be most needed by the devoted 
missionaries who were called to lay down their 
lives for the Master they loved. 

On reaching T'ai Yuan Fu, Mr. and Mrs. 
Simpson at once threw themselves heartily into 
the work, and were soon at home among the 
people. Being specially attracted towards village 
work, part of their time was spent out in the 
country, and, when in the city, the opportunities 
offered by the hospital, school, etc., were eagerly 
taken advantage of by them. 

One of Mrs. Simpson's last acts was to carry 
little Jacky Lovitt on the flight from the burning 
hospital to Mr. Farthing's house, defending him 
from the blows of brickbats and cudgels with her 
own body. The Chinese who accompanied the 
missionaries to the last house in which they lived 
prior to the massacre, mention her as being 
specially active in seeking the comfort and welfare 
of all the party. When the end came, we may 

248 Fire and Sword in Shansi 

be sure that the wish expressed for them by their 
friends at their last leave-taking was fulfilled, and 
that "all grace" abounded toward them in the 
hour of trial. Their place in the Mission field is 
still unoccupied. Who will go for them ? 


Another name of fragrant memory among the 
martyr band is that of Ellen Mary Stewart, 
whose unselfish life of daily loving labour won 
the esteem of the Chinese as well as the warm 
affection of those among whom she . more especi- 
ally worked. 

She was born nth May 1871. Her con- 
version to God was brought about while at school, 
through the recollection of a fault, and a dream 
in which she thought the end of the world had 
come and she saw heaven opened. This, without 
human intervention, led her to her Saviour. 
Writing at the time to her father about it, she 
said : " I think I am almost glad in one way that 
I did it (although, perhaps, it is wrong of me to 
say so), because I think it will be the turning 
point in my life ; for I am really trying now to 
serve God. I do find it rather hard sometimes, 
but I have asked God to help me, and I am sure 
He will." And truly He did, in a way and to an 
extent Nellie little dreamed of when she penned 
these lines. 

After awhile the desire to be a missionary 
sprang up in her heart ; but, home duty forbidding 


Memorials and Last Letters 249 

its realisation, she applied all her energy to the 
work of Kindergarten teaching, for which she 
was fully qualified. 

In 1 894, when she was inquiring for a post as 
governess, the secretary replied : " There is but 
one name on our books, and, as Simla was too far 
from home for you, this opening is quite out of 
the question, for it is to teach English children 
in the interior of China — T'ai Yiian Fu." Nellie 
Stewart went away, pondering an3 praying over 
what seemed to be Gotfs answer to her longings. 
Her father's consent was given, and soon she was 
on her way to the Far East to spend four and a 
half years in the family of Dr. and Mrs. Edwards, 
to whom her helpfulness and affection made her 
almost like a daughter. Her young pupils, whom 
she taught very assiduously, all loved her dearly. 
She gave singing lessons to the Chinese school- 
girls, and for some time devoted her leisure to 
learning Chinese : this, however, she subsequently 
gave up, fearing she had not the strength for it as 
well as her other duties. 

After an all too short furlough of eight months 
in 1 899, she returned to China with Mrs. Farthing 
(B.M.S.) and her three children, reaching T'ai 
Yuan Fu in May 1900, just after the arrival of 
Yli Hsien, the new Viceroy. 

Like several others of her fellow - sufferers, 
Nellie Stewart was naturally timid and beset with 
fears ; but, like them too, a* strong sense of duty 
and a firm faith in her Saviour nerved her for, and 
sustained her in, the God*appointed path which. 

250 Fire and Sword in Shansi 

rough and dark though, it was, led them into the 
presence of Him they loved to serve.^ 


George W. Stokes was born in Dover in 1863. 
From the age of four, when he first attended 
Sunday school, the Salem Baptist Church was 
his spiritual home. There he found Christ in 
1 88 1, becoming a member of the Church in the 
same year. From the time of his conversion 
until his death he was actively engaged in 
Christian work. His secular callii^ was that 
of a printer, and in it he was very successful, 
turning out beautiful specimens of art -printing. 
He made time, nevertheless, to labour as a 
Sunday-school teacher and village preacher, and 
during two fairly long periods had the oversight 
of the village Mission schools in connection with 
the Salem Church, Taking advantage of his 
weekly half-holidays, he frequently visited St 
Margaret's and Ewell Minnis to further the work 
of the Sunday-schools and arouse into'est in 
special services, besides taking an active part in 
establishing and conducting a ragged school in 
one of the roughest parts of Dover. 

The troubles and anxieties through which Mr. 
Stokes passed, in the death of his first wife and 
little son, tended to make him very gentle and 
sympathetic, and the remembrance of his kindness 
and consideration is still cherished — in the villages 

1 All NaiioHs^ April 1901. 

Mr Geo. W. Stokes. 

Memorials and Last Letters 251 

especially. His strong desire to enter the foreign 
Mission field was at length gratified when, his 
parents having taken charge of his little daughter, 
he was able to take up a course of study and 
training under the Rev. H. Grattan Guinness 
and his family, and in January 1 892 arrived in 
China as a member of the China Inland Mission. 
By constant application he obtained a good 
knowledge of the Chinese tongue, and the 
ability to express himself well enough to teach 
and preach acceptably among the villages in the 
province of Chihli, where he laboured for some 
time, especially around Shun Teh Fu, and 
subsequently in the work of the important city 
station of T'ai Yuan Fu, where he died. 

After several years* work in the China Inland 
Mission, Mr. Stokes had occasion to visit the 
Medical Mission at T'ai Yuan Fu to consult 
Dr. E. H. Edwards as to the treatment of opium 
cases. This led to his marriage with Miss 
Margaret T. Whitaker, who had come out from 
England several years before to assist in the 
medical work there. 

Of Mrs. Stokes her sister writes : " She always 
took great interest in Missions; the world and 
its pleasures never had any attractions for her. 
I well remember, when she was about six years 
of age, my dear mother taking us all to see a 
pantomime — our usual Christmas holiday treat. 
During the performance, in a scene where thun- 
der and lightning were represented, Maggie said, 
' Please, mother, take me out of this place ; these 

252 Fire and Sword in Shanst 

people are mocking Grod.' Her wish was 
complied with ; we were all taken home, and it 
was our last pantomime. About the age of 
fourteen she began teaching in the Sunday school. 
When Mr. Moody came to London she was 
always in the inquiry-room, and much used of 
God ; but before that time her mind was greatly 
exercised about China, and her one desire was to 
go out and help Dr. Edwards in the work. The 
way was closed, however, till the doctor returned 
ten years ago, and then Maggie felt that God 
had called, and, despite all opposition, she must 

Her most efficient labours among the sick and 
suffering commenced as soon as she reached 
China, and never ceased during the eight years 
of her missionary life. This made the acquisition 
of Chinese a harder task to her than to many, 
but by the diligent use of every spare hour she 
gained a good knowledge of the language, and 
lost no opportunity of making known the gospel 
of the blessed God both in the city of T*ai Yiian 
JFu and the surrounding villages. Seeing how 
many doors for the truth were opening in this 
district, and how few were the labourers to take 
advantage of them, Mr. and Mrs. Stokes, on their 
marriage in 1 897, decided to ask for their dis- 
missal from the China Inland Mission, and to 
join the Shou Yang Mission, which had its two 
stations in Shou Yang and T'ai Yiian ; and here 
they laboured faithfully for three years. 

In her last letter, on 9th May last, speaking 

Memorials and Last Letters 253 

of the arrival of the Governor, Yii Hsien, Mrs. 
Stokes wrote : " It looks rather ominous, does it 
not? Well, it is comforting to know that we 
are safe in God's keeping." In reference to the 
African War, Mr. Stokes, in one of his last letters, 
says: "Victory all along the line, I am afraid, 
would have done us harm, but it is most sad to 
think of some of the noble men who have fallen 
that the nation might be humbled. Still, I 
believe they have accomplished more through 
defeat and death than was possible through the 
most brilliant victory." How pathetic these 
words in the light of what followed, since both 
these faithful workers were called to lay down 
their lives for the cause and Master they loved I ^ 



Martjnred with Wife and Three Children at Tai YUan Fa, 

^hjuly 1900 

On 2 1 St June Mr. Farthing wrote a letter to 
his friend Mr. Dixon, in which he said the 
telegraph clerk at T'ai Yiian Fu had told him 
that there was a secret edict from the Empress- 
Dowager, which had come by telegraph, saying 
that all foreigners were to be killed. " I do not 
know " (the letter continued) " whether this is 
true or not ; but, Dixon, if it is true, I am ready, 
and do not fear ; if such be God's will, I can even 
rejoice to die." 

^ AU Nations^ March 1901. 

254 Pi^c ^^^ Sword in Shansi 

A year or so before, he had delivered the 
following striking address at a meeting of the 
foreign community of T'ai Yiian Fu, and it is 
here inserted as one of his " last messages " ; and, 
from all that was ascertained on the spot, we are 
sure he went calmly to the place of martyrdom, 
upheld by the thought that ** God in His unerring 
wisdom, He who * according to His purpose ' 
created us, has so fixed 'the bounds of our 
habitation,' so prepared us for the attainment of 
His will, that tlie lifetime of every man is fully 
proportioned to his work." 

In his own words, "the work was done, the 
shadow on the dial showed the hour, and the 
workman was called away to his rest." 

"Jesus answered, Are there not twelve hours in the day? If 
any ouin walk in the day, he stumbleth not, because he seeth 
the light of this world. But if a man walk in the night, he 
stumbleth, because there is no light in him."— John xL 9, la 

"There is one characteristic of Christ's life 
which is plainly manifest to everyone who 
contemplates that wondrous personage. It is 
the calmness of mind, the composure of spirit, 
which He ever displayed* In the presence of 
the mighty effects of His power He ever remained 
tranquil and dignified. He showed neither sur- 
prise nor alarm. He was the same, too, in His 
relations with the people. The surging, excited 
multitude might applaud or condemn : tumultuous 
praise and vehement protestations of loyalty, or 
indignant wrath and venomous expressions of 
hate, were alike powerless to disturb His serenity. 

Memorials and Last Letters 255 

*' During the last few days at His life's close, 
troublous, full of suffering though they were, He 
was unchanged. Throughout the conflict of 
Gethsemane, the base betrayal, the clamour of 
the judgment - hall, and the anguish of Calvary, 
the same self-possession is apparent; it never 
deserted Him. 

"This, however, cannot be interpreted as the 
coolness of unconcern, mere nonchalance. His 
was not the cold dispassionateness of the Stoic 
or ascetic. None was ever so human, so sym- 
pathetic, as He. He was keenly interested in 
all the affairs of men, and was glowingly earnest 
in all His doings. He was graciously bountiful 
to all need, and tenderly compassionate to all 
distress. Tranquillity was consistently blended 
with lofty enthusiasm. The serenity which 
seemed to encompass Him as an atmosphere, 
and which His own spirit created, was that 
of majesty, of conscious power, of supreme 

"Life for Him was no fragmentary, broken 
thing; He viewed it as a whole, recognised the 
purpose in it, comprehended its conditions, and 
gave Himself up unreservedly to its fulfilment 

^ This recognition enabled Him, in the light of 
the purpose, to advance, not the less swiftly 
because calmly, to His goal. Hence there was 
nothing abrupt, nothing that marred the sequence 
of His career. Everything had its due weight 
and exercised its proper influence. 

** Those about Him might at times hesitate and 

256 Fire and Sword in Shansi 

reason concerning the dictates of prudence : Christ 
was prudent without going through the ordinary 
reasoning processes. 

" Did the Pharisees come and ostentatiously 
threaten Him, saying, * Get Thee out, and depart 
hence: for Herod desireth to kill Thee!' His 
ready and unfaltering reply was, * Go ye and tell 
that fox, Behold, I cast out demons, and I do 
cures to*day and to-morrow, and the third day I 
am perfected.' There was a time when He could 
sublimely say, ' Mine hour is not yet come ' ; 
whilst at another time He calmly ministered to 
His disciples in a grandly typical act, because He 
knew ' that the hour was come that He should 
depart out of this world unto the Father.' 

*^ Or, take the circumstances that surround our 

"The same unruffled spirit characterises His 
speech with His disciples. When the tidings 
first reached Him of the deadly sickness of His 
friend Lazarus, the disciples would not have 
wondered had He set out hurriedly to Bethany, 
spite of all hazards, to graciously heal the afflicted 
one. They would then have accompanied Him 
without comment: that would have resembled 
the impatient haste of men. Not so did our 
Lord act : * He remained two days still in the 
place where He was. Then after that satth He 
to His disciples, Let us go into Judea again.' 
What? They had thought that caution had 
outweighed friendship; but now — now that the 
risks of the journey have become definite and are 

Memorials and Last Letters 257 

fully realised through their consideration of them 
during the delay — ^now, when possibly the need 
for His presence has passed away — now that 
the difficulties have increased a thousandfold—^ 
why should He return? 

** Surely He forgets, and— full of wild fears — 
they say to Him, * Master, the Jews of late were 
seeking to stone Thee, and goest Thou thither 
again?' To which He replies with another 
question: * Ate there not twelve hours in the 
day?' Not with any assurance of His power 
to quell revolt against Himself and to overcome 
whatever forces might array themselves against 
Him does He quieten their alarm, but with words 
that indicate the powerlessness of all opposition 
to harm the man who is walking in the path of 
duty until his day has fully closed, and that hour 
has struck which has been foreordained by God 
for the end of his toil and conflict. How sublime 
a view of life does He present to them ! There is 
a purpose in the life; there is a light which 
illumines the path of the man who truly lives his 
life, and there is a sufficient lifetime assured for 
the full accomplishment of that purpose. 

" It is only when self-willed man loses sight of 
that purpose and quenches the light that there is 
any ground for fear. It is only then that threats 
annoy and perils dismay; it is only then that 
the spirit falters and the man falls. 

" It is this recognition of the meaning of life 
which makes so marked a contrast between 
Christ's life and our own. He came into the 


258 Fire and Sw<»rd in Shansi ' 

world to do a work, and He did it Whilst 
doing it He was freed from all anxiety con- 
cerning it He did not distinguish between 
success and failure. All was alike successful. 
It was God commanded, and it could not but 
accomplish the thing that was purposed. Not 
now, it may be, but then — in God's time and in 
God's way — for 'there is no hurry in eternal 

''This was Christ's way of looking upon life. 
Ought it not to be ours abo? Does not His 
question, ' Are there not twelve hours in the 
day?' indicate this very thing? Surely this is 
what His teadiing implied. Let us consider the 
significance of His words concerning our own 

'' I. They teach us that God has a purpose in 
our lives. 

" This is acknowledged by every one of us in 
some indefinite way. It is, however, more of 
an instinctive feeling than a thought; more of 
a pious assent than a determinate wish to 
apprehend what that purpose is and to fulfil it. 
What we need to grasp is, that though as 
individual men we are distinct and separate, yet 
we each are members one of another, we each 
have some distinct and peculiar work to do, 
which only we can do, and which has a definite 
relation to God's creative plan. Human beings 
have a reality in the mind of God. Existence 
was not designed to be meaningless. We are 
not Fatherless orphans, left to shift for ourselves. 

Memorials and Last Letters 259 

cast adrift upon the restless world-ocean, perchance 
to be engulphed, or, more or le3S happily, to be 
flung upon some shore alive though sorely tossed. 

" No ; we have a Father, by whose will we were 
begotten, by whose hand we were to be guided, 
and whose purpose we were intended to fulfil. 

" Each one of us came forth from the heart of 
God bearing some special impress, charged with 
some special mission, and fraught with some 
special significance in the designs of our Great 

*• We were made by Him just what we are, so 
far as we have not marred His work, and are what 
He made us, for some special end. He created 
us in His infinite wisdom, to serve His purpose in 
some way for which we alone are fitted. 

" He might have called into being, by His 
creative word, creatures fairer, diviner, whose loving 
homage, whose worship and devotion, would have 
been more perfect, more pure, than that which we 
can render; but He chose, and His choice fell 
upon us ; He spake and we came into being, and 
came that we might fill some place and do some 
work in accordance with His will. 

" What we may each one humbly say is, * God 
made me, all that which is essentially me^ and 
by which I am known from all others. Those 
idiosyncrasies, those characteristics, which make 
up my individual self, which give me a distinct 
personality, the gifts which are peculiarly my en- 
dowment, — ^these. did God give to me, not through 
caprice, not without intention, but because they 

26o Fire and Sword in Shansi 

were the very qualifications which fitted me to do 
His will/ 

" Others may be more richly endowed, furnished 
with vastly different gifts, seem to be created for 
tasks which are larger and more brilliant ; but none 
can be more honourable for any one of us than 
that received from the Lord of our life. There is 
infinite variety, but no sameness. It is doubtful 
whether there are two men whose work exactly 
corresponds, and thus that we contentedly and 
zealously perform the high behest is urgent All 
offices are alike honourable, and our dignity the 
same ; we are His special creations, to whom is 
committed some special task. Let us illustrate. 
It has been told of Arthur, how the sword with its 
bejewelled hilt which he wielded, and which he 
alone could wield, had been held out to him at the 
first by an arm * clothed in white samite, mystic, 
wonderful/ and how, when the knight was about to 
breathe his last, the sword was again thrown back 
into the stream from out of which it had been 
given, and was received back by the same hand. 
It was a special sword for a special warrior, and 
useless in the hand of any other. 

" So it is with ourselves. Our peculiar endow- 
ments are as the sword of Arthur, which no other 
can possess and which we alone can use. They 
were received by us from God, and of them shall 
we have to give account to Him ; they were 
embodied in us and allied with our personality, to 
accord with and make His possible in our lives. 

" Oh ! if we want to make life real, let us grasp 

Memorials and Last Letters l6i 

this truth. This will give fulness and solemnity 
to life, bring content, and awaken ardour. Every 
man will then become sacred, an altar upon which 
God descends, a temple in which God dwells. 

" 2. Our text teaches us that the measure of 
our lifetime accords with that purpose. What 
else could our Saviour mean when He answered, 
*Are there not twelve hours in the day?' than 
that every life is complete, a full day with twelve 
hours ? 

" It is God who assigns the day ; the divine 
arithmetic we may not . understand. In His 
unerring wisdom. He who, 'according to His 
purpose,' created us has ' so fixed * the bounds of 
our habitation,' so {M'epared us for the attainment 
of His will, that the lifetime of every man is fully 
proportioned to his work. 

" The babe that hardly enters upon the earthly 
life before it again resigns it and goes back into 
the invisible from which it had so lately issued, 
has lived its day could we but count the hours as 
God counts them. Nothing falls to the ground 
resultless. Every breath we draw exerts an 
influence throughout the universe. 

" Did we but know how mighty have been the 
effects of the things we deemed failures, could we 
but tell the worth of the things we have done 
whose outcome is hidden, how they are .not dead 
but are living and have gone forth into the earth, 
then should we marvel, and not be found so 
frequently bemoaning the seeming worthlessness 
of life. * Are there not twelve hours in the day ? ' 

262 Fire and Sword in Shansi 

" We often think not, because we canndt reckon 
as God reckons. We say of a life that was 
snapped off, that just as it was beginning to put 
forth its strength, to show its beauty, to manifest 
its worth, it ended — ended abruptly, ended pre- 

** Indeed there are wonderful contrasts. Look at 
the sons of Zebedee : both were ardent followers 
of our Lord, but James fell ignominiously upon 
the very opening of the Christian campaign; 
the sword of Herod ended the life so full of 
promise, so rich in preparedness before the work 
was well begun. 

" His brother John lived on and attained a 
fulness of years greater than that of any other of 
the apostles, became a man of visions, an eagle- 
eyed Evangelist, who with piercing gaze looked 
upon the infinite fount of light, and left the world 
for ever enriched by his clear discernment of the 
truth. How unequal ! we cry. The life of John, 
so rich, so long — and the death of James, so un- 
timely. Untimely! Banish the thought. This 
we believe, that in each case in God's sight there 
was fulness, each life was complete, for both alike 
twelve hours. 

" The work was done, the shadow on the dial 
showed the hour, and the workman was called away 
to his rest. * Man is immortal till his work is done.' 
" As our bond for the statement, we take the 
example of Christ, we point to the whole Gospel 
narrative, and our text surely brings it before us 
when our Lord reminds us by His sublime ques- 

Memorials and jLast Letters 263 

tion that there are twelve hours accorded to every 
man wherein to live and labour. Our Lord asked 
the question of them as though it could not but 
win their assent, that it could not be gainsaid 
that the hand of God is in the destinies of His 
people, that the Lord's power overrules and 
subdues all foes ; that He is the supreme Arbiter 
in the afiairs of man, the giver and sustainer and 
disposer of men's lives, that He accords to all 
twelve hours — a full and sufficient lifetime. 

" 3. Our text further teaches us that suitable 
opportunity is granted us for the working out of 
God's purpose in our lives. ' If a man walk in 
the day he stumbleth not, because he seeth the 
light of this world.' It may have been that it 
was early morn when our Saviour was speaking, 
and that, standing 9t the door of their last night's 
resting-place. He pointed to the g^eat orb of day, 
which had begun to mount up into the heavens, a 
taskmaster, a watchman warding off danger, caus- 
ing, as it did, the wild beasts to seek their lairs, 
and showing the inequalities and pitfalls of the 
way. * And so,' Christ seems to say, * God hath 
manifested to me His purpose as by an outer 
light illuminating my path, and making things 
otherwise dangerous without power, so that with- 
out the least hesitancy, by the light shed upon the 
purpose as in the light of day, I can walk in safety.' 

" And what is the force of all this for us ? Is 
it not that God so communicates to us His will 
that we may walk unhesitatingly, without fear of 
the world, without anxiety within, to perform the 

264 Fire and Sword in Shansi 

very thing that He would have us do? The 
purpose of God in our creation is like the eye of 
the body; God making known His will is like 
the sunlight, which alone, as it communes with the 
eye, enables us to see. The purpose is as the 
inherent fructifying power of the earth, whilst 
God's communication is as the sun and rain and 
air, which quicken the earth's forces into activity. 
The purpose may be likened to the mariner's 
knowledge and skill to guide a ship to a distant 
port, and God's communication to the skies and 
stars and compass by which he must take his 
bearings and find his course ; else would he be at 
the mercy of the ocean, spite of his knowledge. 

" For the working out of God's will we need 
God's light upon our pathway* He hides within 
us His purpose ; He fits us for the doing of the 
task He has chosen for us, but He keeps us de- 
pendent upon Him for the interpretation of our 
duty, for the opening of our way, for the creating 
of opportunity. Without His aid we cannot spell 
out the mystery of His calling for us. The light 
is not in a man himself. 

" How is it with you, my friends ? Are you 
sighing and mourning because the divine purpose 
is indefinite and hard to understand ? 

" Do you sadly say, * I am sure I cannot tell 
what I have received of the manner of a special 
gift from the Lord. I know not what He would 
have me do. Of one thing only am I certain, that 
I have not ten talents, nor five, and have long 
been doubtful whether I have even one ' ? 

Memorials and Last Letters 265 

" Is such your plaint ? Perhaps you have been 
mistaking the duty of the hour, have sought light 
and meaning within, instead of turning your eyes 
towards heaven. L«ok out from self — look up to 

" It may be that you have closed your eyes, 
and, like a blind man who does not realise that 
the darkness is of himself, are bemoaning that 
the sun hath not yet risen. Open thine eyes and 
see. Light is streaming out and flooding thy 
pathway. The Lord it is who makes luminous 
our duty if we are ready to see, attentive to hear, 
and willing to obey. * If any man will do His 
will, he shall know.' * We shall know if we follow 
on to know the Lord.* * In God's light we shall 
see light.' God hath done and is doing His part. 
AH our experiences, in so far as they have been 
true and have brought forth holiness, — all these 
have been preparing us for the possession of our 

" Every single thing has had some effect in 
awakening us to knowledge, in quickening us to 
activity, if we would but be quickened. 

" Up then ! Let us be doing. Answer God's 
call — His call by our sorrows — His call by our 
joys, by our birth, and by our attainments — His 
call by the view He has vouchsafed us of the 
needs of others — His call in whatever way He 
has called us, — for all these things are the light 
of day, in which we must walk whilst yet it shines. 

" 4. Our text sadly reminds us that there is 
such a thing possible as the frustrating of God's 

266 Fire and Sword in Shansi 

will, and the making void of His purpose. • If a 
man walk in the night he stumbleth, because the 
light is not in him/ What is the picture that our 
Saviour draws ? It is that of a man whose self- 
centred thoughts have made him apprehensive; 
he has become cautious ; he fears the perils of the 
way ; he thinks of the Jews who will stone him, 
and, turning aside from the path which God's 
finger points out for him, fails to embrace the 
opportunity presented. It does not appear to 
him, perhaps, that he is evading duty ; the task he 
will ultimately perform, but not just now ; the risks 
are too great, he will delay awhile until the signs 
are more favourable, — that is all. Alas ! it is not 
all, for the sky which was so full of light for him 
but a short time before now becomes overcast 

" It is no longer day, but night, for him — a night 
of thick gloom and darkness ; for in himself there 
is no light whereby he can discover his path and 
discern duty. * The twelve hours * are lived out, 
but in black night instead of glorious day. This 
seems to be the picture which our Saviour 
sketches of what befalls the man who neglects 
Grod's appointed task. He that would save his 
life loses it. By failure to embrace the opportune 
moment and to yield up himself to the divinely 
appointed task, his whole life is thrown out of 
joint and deprived of meaning. 

" But thanks be unto God for His grate where- 
by He gave us repentance and brought us, who 
had even thus wandered, out of the night, and 
re-established us in His ways and shone upon us 



Memorials and Last Letters 267 

with His light, and still shines upon our pathway, 
and of whom we are persuaded that He will 
continue to shine upon us. Oh! may He so 
vouchsafe His help, so brace up our powers that 
we may follow the Christ, who walked unfalter- 
ingly, undismayed, because He lived ever in the 
broad light of day and was ever subject to the 
manifest guidance of God ; and so, like Him, may 
we serenely and composedly live through our 
twelve hours and fulfil the work which God has 
given us to do," 


The following is one of the latest diaries written 
by any of the missionaries who were massacred 
in the province. The writer was the Rev, C. W. 
Price of America, and with him at the isolated 
station of Fen Chou Fu were his wife and little 
daughter (Florence) ; Rev, E, Atwater (American) 
and his wife (who was an Irish lady) and two 
children (Bertha and Celia); Rev, P, Lundgren 
and his wife (Danes) ; and Miss Eldred (English). 
The three latter were only there on a visit. 

This diary is of particular interest, because from 
it we learn how suddenly the storm gathered and 
burst in this province. Glimpses of the life of the 
missionaries during the last anxious fortnight are 
also given us. How complete was their isolation 
may be gathered from the fact that, though their 
two nearest colleagues (whose station was distant 

268 Fire and Sword in Shansi 

but some lo miles) were massacred on 30th June, 
they only heard of it on 3rd July; while on 25 th 
July they were still uncertain as to the fate of the 
forty-six foreigners who were murdered at T'ai 
Yiian Fu (only three days* journey away) on the 
9th of the same month. . 

We can easily imagine, as they watched day by 
day the clouds which would not bring the much 
desired rain, how anxiously they deliberated as to 
what was the best thing to do. Then there was 
the suspense at night as they kept their lonely 
watch and listened attentively for every sound ; 
for a Chinese city at night (at least in the north) 
is as quiet as a city of the dead, except for the 
occasional dinging of a watchman's gong. It is 
difficult — nay impossible — to realise what were 
the feelings of the husband and wife with their 
two children when they knew their house was 
surrounded by an angry mob — and that at night 
too ! Knowing that a bold front was their only 
chance of safety, they open the gate of their court- 
yard and bravely walk through the crowd to the 
official residence of the Mandarin, where they are 
refused admittance I ! No sooner are they out of 
their house than the pillaging commences, so that 
they are obliged to take refuge with their fellow- 
missionaries — minus everything but what they 
wore. Harassed with conflicting reports, hope 
and fear alternate. Now a proclamation is issued 
for their protection, and anon a day is fixed for 
their extermination. 

The few Christians who have remained by the 


Memorials and Last Letters 269 

missionaries are compelled to leave them, until 
only one remains. With all the tremendous strain 
and anxiety we see the ladies bravely bearing up 
for the sake of husband and children, but we also 
see the husbands distressed on account of wife and 
little ones. 

Towards the close there was one ray of hope — 
the offer of an escort to the coast Treachery was 
suspected but (as we learnt from other sources) 
they were compelled to accept the offer, and killed 
on the roadside soon after starting. 

"Fen Chou Fu, Shansi. 

" It was about ist June that we began to hear 
vague rumours of unusual unrest and talk against 
the foreigners and Church. This was caused by 
the continued drought, which was already being 
felt in the scarcity of food, and also by the lack of 
any useful employment for the people, so that they 
could congregate in the streets and talk over 
grievances, seeking to find a reason why this 
suffering should come upon them. 

" Various stories were set afloat as to the power 
of the missionaries to prevent rain, ascribing 
almost superhuman strength in the way of con- 
trolling the elements. Clouds were constantly 
being driven away by fierce winds, which led to the 
story — thoroughly believed by all the people — 
that we went into our upper rooms and drove the 
clouds back by fanning with all our might. The 
story was changed as regards the T'ai Yiian Fu 

270 Fire and Sword in Shansi 

missionaries, that they were naked when doing the 

"About 15 th June the first Boxers made their 
appearance in our city, not in great numbers, but 
only two, who it was said had come to organise 
the young men of our city, and prepare for the 
great onslaught against the foreigners and their 
religion. They were not successful in getting the 
people to take it up at first, so they began with 
boys ten to twelve years of age. The so-called 
mysteries connected with the organisation appeals 
very strongly to a people so full of superstition as 
these, and after a few days it grew very rapidly. 
The drill, if it may be called so, consists in the boy 
repeating four short lines of some mystic wor^s, 
and bowing to the south and falling backwards, 
when he goes into a trance, remaining lying on his 
back for an indefinite time, when he rises and is 
endowed with wonderful strength — boys of twelve 
being strong as men. They brandish swords and 
spears, not seeming to try to be skilful in handling 
them, but merely to show strength and place them- 
selves under the power of their symbols. They 
claim to be invulnerable, though, as many of them 
have been killed, it would seem that delusion would 
soon be dispelled. 

" Large crowds gather to witness their perform- 
ance, and all attribute supernatural power to them. 
Soon threatening placards against all connected 
with the Church as well as foreigners were posted 
up in different parts of the city, and created some 
excitement. The magistrate at first seemed to 

Memorials and Last Letters 271 

desire to protect us and the Church, issuing a 
proclamation against them (the Boxers), but after- 
wards revoking it, no doubt at the instigation of 
the anti-foreign Governor at T'ai Yiian Fu, and 
giving people permission to organise bands. This 
made them very bold. Christians were insulted 
on the streets, and told their time was about at 
hand. Missionaries were plainly told they were 
to be killed. Times were very critical. 

** 24th June, — Mr. Atwater and I sent our cards 
to the magistrate, asking for an interview. A 
time was appointed — the same day in the 
afternoon — to receive us. We were promised 
proclamations warning the people against per- 
secuting Christians or harming foreigners, and 
were assured there was no danger from the people 
— * it was only talk with them.' The proclama- 
tion was not issued, and the next day our man 
went to the y&men on business, where he was 
shown a letter from the T'ai Yiian Governor 
containing an account of the success of the Boxers 
in Chihli and Shantung, and saying they had been 
received as soldiers by the Government of Peking, 
where they with the regulars had defeated the 
foreign troops and had everything their own way. 
This is no doubt untrue, but the people believe it, 
and the effect is the same for the time as though true 
— as no doubt the authorities thought it would be. 

" Rumours of the condition of missionaries in 
adjacent cities and counties are vague, but such 
as we have show the critical condition we are 
in. T'ai Ku friends have had more trouble than 

272 Fire and Sword in Shan^ 

we thus bty but not so many Boxers. Miss 
Partridge is living alone at Li Man, not being 
willing to leave her schoolgirls to the mercy of a 
mob. Such bravery and devotion to her work 
cannot be too highly spoken of. [N.B. — A few 
days after this was written Miss Partridge was 
compelled to dismiss her school and take refuge 
with the other missionaries at T'ai Ku. They 
were all massacred on 31st July. — E. H. E.] Mr. 
Davis is alone at Jen Tsuen, being determined to 
fight it out on that line. Writes that his revolver 
is in good condition, and thinks he can make a 
mob sick. [N^. — He, too, had to take refuge 
at T'ai Ku, and fell with the others on 31st 
July. — E. H. E.] At Ping Yao — China Inland 
Mission — rumoured that the friends were robbed 
on the 25 th, and were gone to the y^men. At 
Chieh Hsiu — China Inland Mission — five young 
ladies are staying in the city and bravely facing 
the danger; Letters from them on the 27th show 
a brave spirit, and speak of their not being fearful. 
[N,B. — The missionaries from both these stations 
subsequently escaped to the coast, but suffered 
terribly on their journey. — E. H. E.] At Hsiao Ih 
— China Inland Mission — two single women are 
staying, and seem to have no hesitancy in staying 
by the stuff. [IV.B, — These two ladies — Miss 
Whitchurch and Miss Searell — were massacred 
a few days later (30th June) with great barbarity. 
— E. H. E.] Mr. Ogren of Yung Ning Chou 
is expected in Fen Chou Fu with his wife 
in a few days. Do not know whether he is 

Memorials and I^st Letters 273 

driven out or not. [IV,B. — The story of Mrs. 
Ogren's marvellous escape after untold hardships 
has already been published. Her husband died 
from injuries received at the hands of Boxers. — 
E. H. E.] No late reliable news from T'ai Yiian 
Fu or the south. Trust we may hear soon. 
News from the coast vague and unreliable. We 
are in trying times. 

**2$tk/une, — Letter received at yAmen from 

•* 26/A June. — Last night Mr. Lundgren, who is 
staying with us, came to the door of our room 
and said they were destroying the chapel. I 
hastily arose, buckled on my armour, and went 
down, where I found him with his shot-gun ready 
to do battle for the cause. We went over to the 
chapel, marching * quick step,' * trail arms,' where 
we found everyone in profound slumber. The 
noises Mr. Lundgren heard were made by men in 
a court back of us, where they were drawing 
water and irrigating their fields. 

" 27/A /uf$e. — Last night the drums were beaten 
and bugles blown at the barracks outside the city 
about midnight, an unusual time for such per- 
formances. Several Christians staying on Dr. 
Atwood's place thought the attack had begun, and 
ran — some on to the city wall, some over to Mr. 
Atwater's, and some tried to get outside the city. 
They were in a nervous condition all the next day. 

^ 2Zth June, — Last night word came from the 
magistrates that we must be careful and not go 
outside our compound more than can be avoided. 

2/4 ^^^^ ^^^ Sword in Shansi 

We think it best to heed his counsel, though wc 
have little reason to believe him kindly disposed 
towards us. If we do anything counter to his 
wishes, it will give him a good excuse for not 
giving us any protection. He claims he cannot 
control the people. A magistrate's duty seems to 
be to rule the people when they want to be ruled. 
Otherwise he must keep still. 

" To-day we have packed two trunks with the 
things we most desire to save, and, wrapping 
them in oilcloth, have buried them where we 
think the people cannot iind them. We ei^pect 
our places will be looted, and in our extremity do 
not consider it important whether they are or not. 
We shall not resist if they only take our goods. 
If they attempt violence we shall fight if God 
gives us strength, unless they are better organised 
than now appears. We have a good repeating 
rifle, a shot-gun, and revolver. Mr. Lundgren is 
with us. If Mr. Atwater should come to this 
place we should be three men against thousands. 
But our trust is in One to whom numbers are of 
no importance whatever. We are resigned and 
feel very peaceful, waiting till the Lord sees fit to 
move. When that time comes, the counsel of 
the wicked shall come to nought. 

" Christians have in the main shown an excellent 
spirit Though much excited and fearful, they are 
still true. Perhaps God is giving us this trial to let 
us see that He has some true loyal people in Fen 
Chou Fu. We have not heard of any recanting, 
though there has been no actual persecution as 

Memorials and Last Letters 275 

yet — only threats. But they all know that, if 
they were to say they would worship their false 
gods and renounce their Christianity, all danger 
would be over for t}iem. May our heavenly 
Father abundantly reward their devotion I 

•• 29/A June. — Last night was a time of sore 
trial. Just before dark one of the servants came 
and told us that Mr. Atwater's house had been 
surrounded by a mob. Mr. Han (Chinese) at 
once went to the magistrate, who acted very 
promptly, himself going out and arresting men. 
The house was entered and much of the furniture 
destroyed. Strange to say, not many things were 
stolen. Mr. and Mrs. Atwater widi their two 
children were not harmed, though in great danger. 
Before the mob entered their court they opened 
the gate and passed out through a large crowd of 
people, who, strange to say, offered them no 
violence. They went to the y^men (official's 
residence), where they were refused admission, 
though the magistrate quickly restored order at 
their home, to which they returned. They thought 
it best to come over to our place soon after, arriv- 
ing about twelve o'clock (midnight). The Lord 
did indeed in mercy help them. Too much praise 
cannot be given to our Christians for the courage 
and devotion shown. They did not hesitate to 
face the mob, and were ready to carry word back 
and forth without hesitating. The Lord be 
praised I Our work has not been in vain. Such 
witnessing for the truth is itself evidence of the 
power of the gospel. 

276 Fire and Sword in Shansi 

* Word has just come — ^nine o'clock a.m. — that 
a foreigner has been killed at a village 10 Mi ' 
from the city. We hope it is but a rumour, but, 
if true, we cannot imagine who it would be that 
would be coming this way when the foreigners 
are going to T'ai Yiian Fu, the opposite direction. 
Mr. Davis in his last letter spoke of coming to 
Fen Chou Fu, not as indicating a purpose, but as 
something that might happen. Can it be it is he ? 
We can only wait and see. 

" Four o'clock. — Still no certain word from the 
village 10 Mi' out. Only reported that it is not 
certain whether it is a foreigner or Chinaman. It 
seems to be certain it is a Christian. What will 
be the outcome? We are now more cheerful 
than we were this morning. We are, Mr. and 
Mrs. Atwater and the two children (Bertha and 
Celia), Mr. and Mrs. Lundgren, and Miss Eldred 
of the China Inland Mission. {NJ3. — The writer 
takes it for granted that it is known that he and 
his wife and little daughter, Florence, are among 
the number.] 

" Five o'clock, — The helper, Mr. Han, has just 
come in. He went to the village with the magis- 
trate to investigate about the murder. The man 
proved to be an opium sot — ^killed in all proba- 
bility for the sake of creating excitement and 
feeling against the foreig^ners. The report that 
the murdered man was a foreigner was circulated, 
no doubt, to impress the people, and show them 
that foreigners may be killed with impunity. 
The magistrate has arrested and punished five 

Memorials and Last Letters 277 

men and three women of the village. The men 
were given 1000 strokes each. One was beaten 
with a spade till he was all a pulp. [NJB. — It 
has since been ascertained that this was the 
murdered opium sot, a stranger in the village. He 
was attacked by villagers under the excitement of 
the Boxers. — E. H. E.] The women were each 
beaten 300 strokes and driven through the streets, 
as they claimed to be possessed with devils and 
stirred up the people. This murder is directly 
attributable to the I Ho Chuan (Boxers), and we 
hope will make the more sensible of the people 
see where their infatuation is leading them. 

" 30/A June, — Last night was quiet. In the 
evening we assembled the Christians on the two 
places and held a prayer - meeting. The true 
spirit of self-sacrifice and devotion to Christ was 
shown. Surely God will use this trouble to 
strengthen His Church. Thank God for this 
manifestation of His love I 

'* The magistrate has shown a readiness to punish 
offenders of the law, which may have a wholesome 
effect. He seems to see the danger of his own 
position, and I expect sees rebellion in the near 
future. Some soldiers who were guarding our 
place last night said the magistrate said to them, 
*We and the foreigners stand or fall together.' 
They realise that it is not to continue for a long 
time as merely a fight against foreigners, but the 
time will soon come when the whole country will 
be in a state of anarchy. A good rain would 
bring peace. But we know our Father knows 

278 Fire and Sword in Shansi 

when things have come to where He in His 
wisdom wishes to bring them. His arm will be 
stretched out to save. 

" The ladies of our party are very brave, and 
bearing up wonderfully. But the strain is tre- 
mendous. The suspense over the rumour that a 
foreigner had been murdered outside the city was 
almost more than we could bear, coming as it did 
just after the mob of the evening before. 

" 1st July. — Last night was another of quiet, 
though about one o'clock there was a feeling 
among the servants — no one knows how it 
originated— that Mr, Atwater's place was being 
burned; but it was a false alarm. Their cook 
came over this morning saying all was quiet 
This morning it is raining. Oh for copious 
showers I We now only live from hour to hour ; 
but the Lord has wonderfully kept us in peace, 
so that we can rest at night with a feeling of 
security in Him. 

" 2nd July. — Last evening word came that a 
company of Boxers had come from Hsiao Ih and 
were soon to attack us. Our Christians remained 
with us as long as there was anything they could 
do, but late in the evening left except one or two. 
We considered all over and prepared for the 
worst. At the request of the ladies it was de- 
cided that we do not use any means of defence, 
and the guns were put away. After consideration, 
I felt convinced we were not doing right to let 
our wives and children perish without an effort 
to save them. So we again prepared to sell our 

Memorials and Last Letters 279 

lives as dearly as possible. Unexpectedly they 
did not come, but it was a night of intense sus- 
pense. To-day was very trying also. Reported 
they would surely come immediately after dinner. 
About four o'clock word was brought that the bad 
talk in the city had greatly decreased — that the 
report of Boxers coming from Hsiao Ih to destroy 
us was untrue. The Lord reigns. He will work 
His will. 

" 3^dfy«^. — Last night was very quiet. We 
keep watch every night, and shall for some time ; 
but this is the quietest day we have had for some 
time. The two ladies at Hsiao Ih were killed. 
There seems to be no doubt of it now. They 
were ripe for heaven. But how cruel of the 
people for whom they had laboured so faithfully ! 
Poor China ! She is laying up a store of future 
suffering for herself. We pray that whatever is 
done may be for the advancement of God's 

" Six 0*clock. — A glorious shower of rain. It 
will do immense good, and many of the people 
will have work to do, so that their minds will be 
taken up with something else besides destroying 
foreigners. While it was raining we sang * Praise 
God, from whom all blessings flow.' 

" ^rd and /^th July, — All peaceful. It seems 
the Lord has filled the people with a fear of us. 
Rumoured in the city that there were seventy 
foreigners armed with all kinds of guns on our 
place, and were ready to take the city and destroy 
the * I Ho Chuan ' (Boxers). The magistrates 

28o Fire and Sword in Shan^ 

sent out word that English and American 
missionaries were to be protected, which had a 
good effect. He is doing all he can for us. A 
good shower of rain to-day. May the Lord send 
copious showers ! 

" 4/A (f 5 /A) July. — Another quiet day. We 
keep watch by night by relief. How long is it 
to continue ? Ladies bearing up bravely, but the 
strain is very great. To-day another small shower 
of rain. Early in the day reported that a day has 
been set when we are to be attacked — 14th inst. ; 
but, as that has been so often decided on and 
given up, it does not cause the anxiety it once did. 

" Later. — Rumoured that the talk on the streets 
was changing in our favour, but nothing is certain. 
I think we owe our safety thus far under God to 
the bold stand we have taken. They know we 
are ready to fight for our lives. We believe we 
are justified in taking this stand, though no doubt 
we shall be condemned by some of our fellow- 
missionaries. * Let every man be fully persuaded 
in his own mind.' 

^^ 6th July. — Another quiet night Yesterday 
a proclamation was issued by our magistrate 
asking Christians to recant, saying it would bring 
peace if they would but yield at the time till the 
excitement dies out. He — the magistrate — does 
not understand how great a matter it is to turn 
from the gospel to serve idols. The proclama- 
tion also stated that foreigners were to be 
protected ; but what comfort can it be to us if our 
Christians are to pay the price for us ? There is 

Memorials and Last Letters 281 

one thing in their favour: they can hide for a 
few months till the storm blows over, and no one 
would know they are Christians, but we would be 
known wherever we go. It is said Hung Tung 
— ^three days south — is quiet, and Mr, Lutley has 
returned to his house. Word on the street that 
Chieh Hsiu is also quiet. Trust it may be true. 
We hear the Boxers have been driven out of 
Hsiao Ih — 10 miles east — by the vigorous work 
of the magistrate. Letters to-day from T'ai Ku. 
Friends there are, all in the city, but in the same 
straits as ourselves. It is good to hear from 
them again. Heh Kou brought the letters, and 
seemed glad to get back to us. It is good to 
have him here, as he will be an encouragement 
to the Christians. T'ai Yiian Fu friends on Mr. 
Farthing's place. Miss Coombs killed. 

•* Tth Jtdy, — Last night quiet. Reported the 
Boxers are to gather here from surrounding districts 
and attack us in force. We are strengthening our 

" Zth to i/^th July, — Nothing of importance for 
these few days except the vigorous work of 
magistrate in punishing Boxers, Also a pro- 
clamation ordering all Christians to go to the 
temples and worship their false gods. It is good 
to see how they disregard the proclamation. 
There are now seventeen Christians on this place 
ready to fight for their lives, but say they will die 
rather than give up their belief in Christ Some 
are yet in their villages, standing firm for their 
faith. May the Lord help them I 

282 Fire and Sword in Shansi 

" Yesterday was the day set apart for a general 
assault on the foreigners and Christians, but it 
passed off without unusual excitement Quite a 
crowd of men gathered in front of our place in 
the evening, but proved to be only neighbours and 
merchants of the city who had heard we were to 
be attacked, and had come to see the ruin of our 
place 1 The three y^men men went out and ordered 
them to disperse, which th^ did without trouble. 

*' Story circulated that we had hired our cook 
to get men to go to different houses in the city 
and write the character 'ten' ( + ) on the door, 
indicating that within ten days some calamity 
would come to that house. His wife and father- 
in-law and family have been taken to the y^men, 
where the case is to be tried. It has created a great 
deal of excitement, and was no doubt started for 
that very purpose. Trust the magistrate will get 
at the truth and punish the offenders. How silly 
the people are in their superstitions I • . . 

^^ I Sth July {Sunday), — ^Over thirty at service 
this morning. It is good to see so many who, 
notwithstanding the danger, are ready to come to 
worship, and in fact stay on the place, when they 
might be in greater safety by going away where 
they are not known. 

"Story told us of the fears of the people. 
Horsemen had been heard at dead of night riding 
furiously up and down the streets of the city. 
Perhaps this had led to the belief that sixty more 
foreigners have come into our compound. May 
the Lord cause a great fear to come upon them I 

Slatting for a llcnic — Shou Yang Hsien. 
Weli.esley W. Picott (X), martyred glh July 1900. 

Memorials and Last Letters 283 

" 1 6th July. — ^To-day letter from Mr. Ogren 
tells us the magistrate of his city has found it 
impossible to protect him, and has asked him to 
leave. He started on the 13th for the Yellow 
River. It is a dangerous plan, but we hope he 
may be able to accomplish it Rumoured that 
the Governor has sent word that the foreigners 
are to be protected. The word is said to have 
been sent from Peking. Rumoured that the 
Catholics of Wen Shui Hsien have been fighting 
the Boxers. 

" Here things are remarkably quiet A light 
rain has been falling most of the day. 

" 1 7 th July.— saw all quiet. No bad talk on 
the streets that we can hear of. It is almost too 
quiet to continue. None of our Christians have 
as yet been molested to any extent. May the 
Lord keep them from this suffering ! 

" Ten o'clock p. m. — Word just in from T'ai Ku 
that T'ai Yiian Fu and Shou Yang friends, who 
had gone to that city, were all killed while on 
their way to the Fut'ai's y^men. Later reports 
say but one man and one woman killed. Hard 
to say which report is correct Still we are in 
the hands of God, and must not despair. He is 
above all. T'ai Ku friends are still safe, but feel 
they are in much danger — are thinking of trying 
to escape to the hills. Hope they will not try it. 
It seems to me the safest place is in our own home. 

" 1 2ith July. — Still very quiet. Last night, men 
from the y^men told us it was the Catholic place 
at T'ai Yiian Fu that had been destroyed. But 

284 Fire and Sword in Shansi 

this evening's word on the street is that it was the 
foreigners residing in the city that had been killed. 
What are we to believe? Word also came to- 
day that the Governor of the province had been 
shot in the trouble there on the 14th or 15 th. 
We must still feel we are in the hands of a loving 
heavenly Father. 

" 1 9/A July, — Still very quiet. Heh Kou started 
to-day for T'ai Ku to see if he can get some 
silver for us. He was very willing to go, but we 
shall feel very anxious about him until his return. 
It is very dangerous travelling, not only for 
Christians, but for anyone who may be carrying 
money. Reported to-day that Hei Fu T'ang is 
writing out an explanation of bis position, and 
asking to be recognised as a Confucianist in the 
future without any connection with the Christian 
Church I We have thought him one of our best 
members. Trust his example will not influence 
others. Wang Hsi Mien has come in to-day, 
which has cheered us up. Says he will stay here 
through it all now. 

"Several Catholics have been killed at Wen 
Shui, 20 miles north. Another man from Tientsin 
says the Boxers have degenerated into robbers 
there, and cannot be controlled. Foreign soldiers 
masters of the situation. 

" 20th July, — Quiet night. We with the Chinese 
Christians keep watch every night. Men from the 
y&men here all the time. Christians who are not 
members of the Fen Chou Fu Church ordered to go 
to their own districts. 

Memorials and Last Letters 285 

" To-day a proclamation was posted in the court 
asking the Church members to recant, and threat- 
ening, if they did not, to send the missionaries 
out of the district It is hard to understand the 
magistrate's meaning. This p.m. an order came 
for all the Christians from Shih Ta — a village 5 
* li ' from the city — to go to the y&men and tell 
the reason why they have not obeyed the former 
proclamation. It was good to see how calmly 
and resignedly they went May our heavenly 
Father give them courage and wisdom before the 
magistrate I We have just had a prayer-meeting 
for them. 

" 4.30 p.m. — Mr. Han has just returned from 
the y&men. Four of the Christians from Shih Ta 
were beaten 100 to 300 stripes, and led off to the 
temple and made to bow to the idols. We must 
uot judge them too harshly. It was a great 
temptation, and was put to them in the form of 
law. I think the magistrate did it to prevent 
their being harmed by a mob. . . . After hearing 
Mr, Han's report, we kneeled down while he led 
in prayer asking for strength for all of us to bear 
our burdens. 

"21 J/ July. — Servants and Christians going 
away to-day, except Fei, Han, and Jen, with 
perhaps one or two of the servants. It is said 
thQ Christians who were punished yesterday did 
not recant, but received their punishment in silence, 
and were ordered not to return to us. We do not 
know what we are to look forward to. God 

286 Fire and Sword in Shansi 

" 22nd and 2'^rd July. — Yesterday a very quiet 
day. We did not hold our usual Sabbath Chinese 
worship because of the Mandarin's proclamation. 
There are various rumours afloat — * Governor 
gone to Shou Yang to destroy the Catholics.' 
* Governor gone to Peking, and his going to Shou 
Yang was only a pretence to get away from T'ai 
Yiian Fu.' * He is going to destroy the Catho- 
lics in Shou Yang and Yu TzU, and then take 
up the work of exterminating the Protestants at 
T'ai Ku and Fen Chou Fu.* Tt seems almost in- 
credible that a high officer should lend himself 
personally to such work. 

"Yesterday came rumour of an agreement of 
peace with foreign nations. Trust God will give 
the nations wisdom to deal with the question so 
as to form a p^manent settlement. Rumour 
that Li Hung Chang has been called to the 
Viceroy's place in Chihli. 

" 2\thjfdy. — Still rumours of articles of peace 
being signed. Things very quiet at present, 
though we realise the danger is by no means over. 
A Hsiu Tsai (graduate of the first degree), in 
yesterday, told us that Heaven had sent myriads 
of angels to fight for China. He thoroughly 
believes it Mr. Atwater got his (stolen) things 
out of pawn by paying 30,480 cash. We can 
ill spare that sum now, but it was all we could do. 

" Two * chai - ren ' (y&men - runners) went to 
Chang Pei Tang's village to catch him, but he had 
hired the villagers to help him get away, going 
across the border into Hsiao Ih Hsien. They 

Memorials and Last Letters 287 

went there after him, but were arrested as bad men 
and taken to the y^men. We do not know how 
the matter will terminate. 

" Word of a secret letter from Governor of pro- 
vince saying that the foreigners are to be protected 
if they do not rebel against the Government. Hard 
to understand the meaning of such orders. 

^^ 2^th July. — Quiet night. Things have not 
been so apparently peaceful since long before the 
first outbreak. We are beginning to have more 
hope that the T*ai Yuan Fu friends have not been 
made away with. Everything goes by rumours. 
No word that can be depended on. 

" 26th July. — Still quiet Heh Kou is afraid 
he will get into trouble by his activity in helping 
uSy though he does not hesitate to give us all the 
help he can. \N,B. — When the crisis came this 
man suffered very severely, being beaten unmer- 
cifully and then put in prison because he would 
not reveal the names of other Christians. He 
was subsequently released. — E. H. E,] Air filled 
with rumours. We do not know what to expect. 
May God help us to be brave I 

" The Fu magistrate (Prefect) heard a rumour 
that there were eight hundred foreigners on our 
place. Sent to the Hsien magistrate (Sub-Prefect) 
to know if it was true. As we have y^men-runners 
on the place all the time, it was not hard for the 
magistrate to reply that there was no truth in the 
matter. These stories are set going by bad men to 
create excitement against us. Rumoured that the 
Governor is at Hsu Kou with three hundred soldiers 

288 Fire and Sword in Shansi 

and two hundred Boxers on his tour of extermi- 
nation. From Hsu Kou he is to go to T'ai Ku ; 
T'ai Ku to Ping Yao, and on to Fen Chou Fu I 

" 2Tth July, — New magistrate has arrived to take 
the place of the regular one, in order that he may 
go to T'ai Yiian Fu to take part in the examination. 
Reported yesterday that, in view of the disturbed 
condition of the country, no examinations would 
be held. So the old magistrate remains here, but 
the new has the office till further orders from Tai 
Yiian Fu. Trust he will rule with a firm hand, as 
nothing else will keep the people under. To-day 
magistrate went out to a village about 30 'li' 
from the village, taking some * ya-ih * (underlings) 
with him, to arrest some Catholics, who are numer- 
ous there. It is said one man — Catholic — was 
badly hurt with a sword. The men are to be 
examined to-morrow. 

" The Fu magpistrate (Prefect) died to-day. We 
are anxious to see who will take his place. 

"28/A July. — Still all quiet. Several more of 
the Christians, becoming frightened at the arrest 
of Catholics, have arranged to leave the Church. 
It now seems that our work is to be altogether 

" Last night a proclamation from the Governor 
was posted, proposing more stringent measures 
against Christians, and saying that the missionaries 
if found doing anything wrong would be killed. 
It may be an interesting question as to what he 
would consider wrong. Or are the people to 
decide for themselves and act accordingly ? 

Memorials and Last Letters 289 

*• 29/A July. — Yesterday evening word was 
brought us that we are to be escorted to the 
coast, by order of the Emperor. We have very 
little faith in it. It may be but a blind to put 
us off our guard. The proclamation issued the 
day before yesterday says, * Mieh-yang sha-kwei ' 
(destroy the foreigners and kill the devils). 
Nothing can be plainer, and shows the Govemoi's 
wishes. It will be well with us to be careful 
how we fall in witii a plan to escort us to the 
coasts which may only be a plan to get us to 
the capital to kill us. 

'' 30/A Jfdy,- — This morning the proclamation 
was given us, in which it is declared that Christiaa<« 
must leave the Church to save their lives. The 
foreigners are to return to their own country; 
but, as no promise is made for escorting us, it is 
about the same as to say we are to be killed. 
What we are to do does not appear. Heh Kou 
has gone to the magistrate, by his request ; but 
although he has been gone for over three hours 
he has not returned. We much fear sometiUing 
has happened to htm. May Grod help us to 
put our trust in Him. 

"4 p,m. — Heh Kou Just returned. The 
magistrate treated him very well, and offers us 
a small escort. Offers also to help us to hire 
litters. The worst matter is our travelling 
expenses. Trust we may be able to manage 
for it. 

" 3 1 J/ /«i?^.-— Plan to go by Yellow River given 
up. Too much danger. It is now proposed 

290 Fire and Sword in Shansi 

we go into the mountains for a month. Seems 
the only thing to do. Reported Peking in the 
hands of foreigners. Hard fighting around 

Here the diary suddenly and abruptly ends; 
but the rest of the story is soon told. The new 
Prefect was evidently sent by the Governor Yii 
Hsien with distinct orders to kill the foreigners, 
and he rapidly developed his plan. All the 
Christians of the locality were forced to quit the 
missionaries, leaving only dne to help them — a 
young teacher from the neighbourhood of Peking. 
Then the magistrate demanded that the mission- 
aries should give up their arms, and finally 
repeated his promise to send them under escort 
to the coast Carts were provided, and every 
arrangement made for them to leave on 9th 
August They started that morning in fairly 
good spirits, yet not without some misgivings, 
which were well-grounded, for they had only 
gone some 6 miles, when at a signal given by 
the leader of their escort, a number of soldiers 
disguised as Boxers, who had been iii ambush, 
appeared and speedily despatched the helpless 
band of foreigners, consisting of three men, four 
ladies, and three children. The one Christian 
who was with them, being warned by one of the 
soldier escort, escaped before they reached the 
fatal spot, but not before he had been despoiled 
of everything he had worth taking — even to his 
shoes — by the escort I Before leaving the district 

Memorials and Last Letters 291 

he ascertained the particulars concerning the 
massacre of the missionaries, and then made his 
way to Tientsin, which he reached after many 
vicissitudes and dangers. 


"Fen Chou Fu. 

" SO/A June. — In the meantime here we are. 
So far all safe and well, but living in a suspense 
that cannot be imagined unless by others in like 
suspense. We are shut in this province, with no 
communication with the coast for weeks. We 
have no way of knowing what die situation there 
is. We do not know whether there is war, what 
nations are implicated if there be war; but we 
can only live moment by moment, longing for 
something definite. It gives one the feeling of 
being caught in a trap, with wicked people all 
about us desiring our extermination; and the 
feeling will come, in spite of trying to be brave 
and hopeful, that the Shansi missionaries may 
need to give their lives for the growth of the 
kingdom of God in China. There has been 
much these days to make us rejoice. The lead- 
ing men in the Church have stood firm, and 
apparently are not * time-servers.' 

" If we are to be murdered, one can but pray 
that it may come quickly and end our terrible 
suspense. Our friends at home will have suspense, 
but not such as ours, when the heart refuses to 
act properly, and knees and legs shake in spite 

292 Fire and Sword in Shann 

of all efforts to be brave and quiet, trusting alone 
in God. We do trust in Him. That is our 
witness. No matter what comes, we are trusting 
Him, believing firmly that all this tumult and 
alarm and real danger, rumours of wars and 
terrible evil, are only working out His infinite 
purpose for good to come to China. Each day 
we live we feel it a deeper truth that man 
proposes and God disposes. He has made the 
wrath of even - these evil people around us to 
praise Him. The verse on the Woman's Board 
calendar for yesterday — which was a day of the 
greatest suspense of our lives, concerned as to 
the murdered man, as to what the ' kwan ' would 
do for us, and whether the punishment for all 
these criminals would be at all adequate — was 

'''Thank God, the darkness and earthquake 
and fire and storm do pass by, and with wrapt 
tace and eager soul we listen for the still, small 
voice. Fear not, it is all right. God is watching 
ajfd waiting. The Lord executeth righteousness 
and judgment for all that are oppressed.' 

" If we die, we die in peace. — ^Ever yours 
lovingly, ChaS: Eva: FLORENCE. 

" \st July — More dreadful news. Miss Whit- 
church and Miss Searell in Hsiao Ih are said to 
be certainly killed. Dr. Edwards' place in T'ai 
Yiian Fu destroyed, and two foreigners — we know 
not whom — killed. 

'^ It all comes from the wicked Governor, who 

Memorials and Last Letters 293 

came in here with the exaggerated hatred for 
the foreigners because they were the cause of his 
being driven out from his former place. 

" May God keep us in His • Safe Shelter ' at 
the last, even as He is now — when we know not 
what an hour may bring forth ! 

" We leave it as a testimony to all who are 
wavering, who doubt, who deny — the grace of 
God is sufficient. 

" Ever yours, in dependence and trust in the 
Saviour who saves and the Keeper who keeps. 
— Lovingly to all. EVA." 

Martyred at T'ai Ku, list July 190a 

"Tai Ko Hsibn. 

** Thursday 1 2th July, — Dreadful news came 
to us last eve. It was so dreadful we could not 
believe it, and hoped to hear it disputed to-day ; 
but it is not The report is that all the T'ai Yiian 
Fu foreigners — thirty -two, including the Shou 
Yang people, who were sent there by the Shou 
Yang 'y^men' — and some thirty Chinese have 
been massacred, and that by order of the Governor. 
Can it be that God will let that one man kill 
all the missionaries and all the Christians in this 
province, without let or hindrance ? Such news is 
hard for our people to hear. They have stood by 
us bravely, but I don't know how much more 

294 ^1^^ ^^d Sword in Shansi 

they can stand. They were willing to stand and 
fight with us when they had Boxers to contend 
with ; but when it comes to Government soldiers 
there is no hope, and it takes all the courage 
out of them. 

" 1 3 /A July, — I cannot write much more now. 
There is so much I would like to say, but cannot, 
though it may be the last word from me you will 
ever get. Hsiang Hsi offers to send to his home 
any letters we may wish ; and when the country is 
restored to peace, if it ever is, they will be sent to 
Tientsin. I must say good-bye to you all, dear 
mother and all of you. Our people are scattering. 
We cannot wonder. I think some of them would 
die for us if they could thus save us ; but to feel 
that staying simply means being killed with us, as 
the T'ai Yiian Fu Chinese were, without being 
able to help, is more than they can do. Poor 
people, these are dreadful times for them ! All 
will be protected who deny their religion. Hsiang 
Hsi has been such a comfort to us. He has clung 
to us through great opposition, but his father 
insists on taking him away now. Last night we 
were almost ready to start for the hills, thinking 
it one chance for life, but the dangers from Boxers 
and robbers and perils of all kinds are so great, 
what could we do ? If you never see me again, 
remember I am not sorry I came to China. 
Whether I have saved anyone or not. He knows ; 
but it has been for Him, and we go to Him. — 
Darling ones — good-bye, 

"RowENA Bird." 

Memorials and Last Letters 295 

Martyred at Vsd Ku, Sisi/ufy 1900. 

"T'ai Ku, Shansi, \Atth July 1900. 

" Dear Mrs. Edwards, — There seems a little 
lull in our affairs ; we have nothing to do now but 
to wait for death, or deliverance which seems 
impossible except by a miracle. So I will try 
and write you, as fully as I can, all we know about 
T'ai Yiian and Shou Yang. 

" It all comes thro' Chinese. We sent Heh Kou 
(Dr. Atwood's helper) up, but they dared not give 
him a foreign letter, lest he be searched and lose 
his life. That was some days ago, and all we 
know since, or of Shou Yang anyway, is through 
rumours on the street. I learned a little through 
a Liman boy who worked at Shou Yang, but don't 
know how straight it is. 

" I will give this if finished to some Chinese, in 
hopes, after all is quiet, they may get it * to the 
coast. IVe sent letters to my friends so. Excuse 
all mistakes — we are all more or less stunned and 
stupid. It ,is a trying two weeks weVe passed. 

" I don't know how much you have heard. Our 
last courier didn't get through, and we don't know 
as to the letters sent by one or two before. This 
Governor, Yii, you probably know, was ousted 
from his position in Shantung by the English on 
account of his treatment; of foreigners. The 
Boxer movement there started under him. This 
affair was supposed to be settled. Then the 

296 Fire and Swdrd in Shansi 

foreign Powers let him be sent up here. How 
culpably careless it was in them! I wonder if 
they'll care, or only say, * It's just missionaries ' ? 

" No one feared the Boxers here, and all were 
confident no riots would occur. They were un- 
easy about the Governor. He started Boxers 
out, but they were expelled from all the villages, 
the elders saying they were bad men, and they 
wanted nothing of them. 

" Then it was so dry^ and men were starving 
everywhere, and his efforts and hate were unceas- 
ing. Finally, the movement spread like wildfire, 
the boys from twelve to fourteen being most 
active. Thursday 28di June was set to kill all 
the foreigners and Christians in the province. But 
so many days have been set and nothing come of 
it that no one believed it We were all on the 
watch, though, and praying. 

•* In T'ai Ku there was a riot about the house 
all the Sunday before. I came in to Communion 
and passed through a crowd of two hundred 
perhaps, quite unconscious of their purpose till 
they shouted after me, * Kill the foreigners.' No 
Communion. I went back to Liman with an 
anxious heart; but we are still alive, and our 
foreign house still stands, and my place has not 
been touched. The Jen Tsuen house was looted. 

•* P'ing Yao was attacked on Monday 25 th June, 
T'ai Yuan and Fen Chou Fu on Wednesday. 
No demonstrations were made here on those nor 
on the appointed day. No one was hurt at Fen 
Chou Fu, and the * kwan ' has protected them 

Memorials and Last Letters 297 

with much spirit ; but it is now many days since 
we heard. The P'ing Yao friends asked for an 
escort to T'ai Yiian, but at Hsiao Tien Tzu heard 
of T'ai Yiian's riot, and were all but attacked 
themselves, so turned about and started for Lu 
Ch'eng. They sent to us for silver ; did not come 
ha'e for fear of increasing our danger. What they 
have suffered no one knows. They have been 
robbed, betrayed by guards, left by servants, and 
whether still alive seems very doubtful. Mr. and 
Mrs. Saunders, four children, Mr. Jennings, and 
Miss Guthrie formed the party. Miss Whitchurch 
and Miss Searell were killed at Hsiao Ih, we don't 
know what day. The * kwan ' had the bodies 
put in a new baptistery Miss Searell had just 
finished, to await identification, laid out in coffins. 

" Miss French and Miss Johnson were at Chieh 
Hsiu, and no one has heard from them. 

" The Lundgrens and Miss Eldred are at Fen 
Chou Fu, or were when we heard. 

" The Ogrens have not been heard from. 

" At T'ai Yiian Fu the crowd gathered and went 
first to Mr. Farthing's. He went out and talked 
to them, reminded them of famine times, and how 
foreigners saved so many lives. 

" * That's so/ they said, and scattered. 

•* He got into a cart and went to the Taot'ai's 
y^men. The Taofai said he would protect them, 
but had an affair just then. Mr. Farthing pressed 
him, and he sent soldiers. Meantime a crowd of 
boys from the Manchu city (Boxers) had entered 
the book-room at Tung Chia Hsiang and fired it 

298 Fire and Sword in Shansi 

The people rushed in and about the court Our 
friends gathered in Dr. Lovitf s court, and, when 
safety was no longer possible there, formed in 
ranks ; the gentlemen used their revolvers (four), 
shot several, and forced a passage through the 
crowd. They escaped to Mr. Farthing's. 

" Two schoolgirls were trampled to death, and 
dear Miss Coombs was struck on the back of the 
neck, and probably died instantly. We think she 
must have been behind caring for her girk. 

" When Heh Kou went up on Tuesday 3rd 
July h% found them still there, twenty-five souls. 
The servants had stuck to them, and evidently did 
to the last, as forty Chinese are reported killed and 
over thirty foreigners. 

" We do not know what day the place at Shou 
Yang was burned. We heard of it on Tuesday. 
No word of the people. We waited anxiously 
for news, and when it came our hearts sank 
worse. Wan Hong Tzu came on Friday, bring- 
ing Yao Hou Chi's story. He says he stayed by 
them. They fled to a village and stayed over 
night. Next morning the villagers drove them 
out. Our Mary and Ernestine were still there, 
and we suppose two of the Beynon children. 
Then they went to the house of a very warm- 
hearted Christian, whose women -folks all had 
unbound feet The man and some of his family 
were killed. From there they attempted to get 
back to the yimen. As I remember. Ten Jen 
and his wife were with them, also Yao Hou Chi 
and one Christian helping. They came to the 

Memorials and Last Letters 299 

river ; whether there was water I don't know, but 
some started over, leaving some behind; these, 
who were children, were cautioned not to speak, 
but did. Whether someone was really following 
them, or whether they got into a panic and fled, 
at any rate they all separated, and he lost them ; 
and, though he and the Christian climbed the 
ridge and looked and called, they found nothing 
more of them. That's his story. Sounds as 
though he ran away. All this at night, of 

" Next day our courier came in, got within 
I GO Mi ' of Pao Fu and turned back. He said 
they were all in the yimen at Shou Yang. 

"Tuesday loth July, it was reported on the 
street that they had been sent under escort to 
T'ai Yuan. Next day came the report of the 
massacre, which happened on the loth. The 
glass had been broken out of the Farthings* place ; 
and perhaps it was unsafe, or the arrival of more 
foreigners may have made the populace more 
threatening, or Mr. Pigott may have passed 
through so much as to feel unsafe there, and 
urged doing something. We have thought of 
all these reasons, but hear only that they all 
removed from there to a large empty court back 
of the Taot'ai y^men. The Fut'ai sent word he 
could not protect them there, that they should 
come to his yimen. Two soldiers to each 
foreigner escorted them. Just outside the gates 
of the y^men Boxers set upon them. It seems 
as though someone must have escaped, but it 

300 Fire and Sword in Shansl 

is not probable a foreigner could. The shopmen 
call our boys in, and tell them with bated breath. 
There seems a horror over the people. 

"There really is much kindly feeling towards 
us in the city ; but if the Grovemor has decreed 
our destruction, it's only a question of time. 

" We prepared for flight last night, but were 
detained, and now it is probably too late anyway. 
Our ' kwan ' has told us to trust him ; he seems to 
have been trustworthy so far, but the Governor 
is still in power, though recalled by the demand 
of the French. Our people stayed till they heard 
this report Now we have barely enough to do 
the work, almost no force to fight This ' kwan ' is 
young, this his first post, and all his moves are 
very cautious and not openly for us ; but he has 
subdued the Boxers throughout the Hsien. The 
Governor was afraid to go to Peking, and unless 
he is crazy, as some say, is preparing to revolt, as 
he has demanded a thousand soldiers from each 
Hsien. You must know through tel^^ms what 
has happened at the coast We know nothing. 
Hear many rumours, some contradictory. 

" We do not know surely who were at T'ai 
Yiian. Mrs. Beynon had returned, Misses Clark 
and Stevens were there. Suppose as follows: — 
Lovetts, 3 ; Stokes, 2 ; Simpsons, 2 ; Farthings, 
5 ; Misses Stewart, Stevens, and Clark, 3 ; 
Underwoods, 2 ; Whitehouses, 2 ; Wilsons, 3 ; 
and Beynons, 3. That makes the 25 Heh Kou 
reported. In that case there would have been 
9 from Shou Yang, but some say 7 ; so we can't 

Memorials and Last Letters 301 

be sure. There are 6 of us here — Clapps, 
Williams, Davis, Bird, and myself; and fo at 
Fen Chou Fu — Prices, 3 ; Atwaters, 4 ; Lund- 
grens, 2 ; and Miss Eldred. 

" We can get no word of Hsin Chou, except 
that beyond there the country is much disturbed. 

" It has almost broken my heart to write this 
letter. We talk much, but think as little as 
possible, and this made me think. 

** Those dear people, they were so good and 
sweet and dear, and had done so much for China. 
I can't believe it yet. My heart almost murmurs. 
I can trust for myself and hope to be kept brave 
through it, though I don't know. I get awfully 
irritable under this close confinement But wAy 
they must all be taken, I can't understand. Well, 
they are past all doubts and questionings now. 

" We three ladies slept upstairs where you slept 
when visiting here. We're in the city, not out at 
the foreign house. One night we were waked 
from deep sleep — ^ao tired — on a false alarm, 
and Mrs. Clapp fell down the stairs from top to 
bottom, wrenched her foot and the other knee, 
and tore a great gash in her arm just below the 
armpit, about four inches long and half an inch 
deep. The Sangs treated it beautifully, took five 
stitches. This is the tenth day, and she has been 
walking too, and the arm has healed without a 
particle of matter. It is very hot, and the air of 
the city is trying, though not so bad as if we'd 
had more rain. 

" May the Lord be merciful to you and let this 

302 Fire and Sword in Shansi 

news come to you gently. They sent a telegram 
to us by Heh Kou, and we to the coast, but have 
some doubt of the messenger. We've also sent 
two men to Hwai Luh and another to Pao Fu 
to wait for mail. Wrote Mr. Green the conditions 
at T'ai Yiian, so he could telegraph ; but it is very 
dangerous on the road, and we fear for them. 

•* I do hope your brother returned safely. Love 
to all of you dear friends. 

<< Louisa Partridge." 

Present Needs and Future Prospects 

THE latest news is not reassuring. Two 
English missionaries were killed in the 
province of Hunan in August last, the old 
accusation of poisoning the wells having been 
brought against them. The British Ambassador 
declined to hold social intercourse with the 
Chinese Court until justice had been done and the 
culpable officials punished ; and four English 
gunboats went six hundred miles up the Yangtsze 
River to the important port of Hankow. We 
notice, too, that at last the English ladies in Peking 
have declined the invitations of the Dowager- 
Empress. It is to be deeply regretted that any 
show of force was necessary ; and if only a little 
interest had been manifested and an official 
inquiry held when over one hundred British 
subjects were massacred two years ago, matters 
might now assume a different aspect. All the 
most recent intelligence from China confirms the 
opinion that things are drifting back into their old 
ruts, and the following extract from an article in 
the North China Herald of ist October on 



304 Fire and Sword in Shansi 

" The Imperfect Sympathy of the East and West " 
is worthy of serious consideration : — 

^ It is not a gratifying reflection that more than 
a full year after the final ' settlement ' of affairs 
between China and 'the Powers' there is no 
sign and no definite promise anywhere of those 
subjective reforms which alone will render the 
previous official prog^ramme incapable of repetition. 
Let it be distinctly understood that no one 
predicts a repetition of the Boxer attempt 
immediately or at any time in the future. What 
is aflirmed is that there is at the present time in 
China a minority who would be willing and glad 
to attempt such a repetition, and a majority who 
would be delighted to have it accompli^ed, but 
who would never dare to tiy it As an incidental 
confirmation of this position it is worthy of notice 
that for several months a carefully nursed, rapidly 
expanded, and deadly efficient Boxer propaganda 
has been in actual operation under our very eyes 
in the largest and most populous province of the 
Empire, with no genuine effort whatever to stop 
it on the part of the inert Manchu Grovemor- 
General, whose removal is apparentiy accomplished 
only by strong pressure. The conditions already 
witnessed in Szechuan (whatever may be true of 
the future) are such as all of us had hoped and 
some of us had expected never again to bdiold. 
Together with other significant indications, they 
seem clearly to show that as yet practically 
nothing has been done towards the real 'settle- 
ment ' of the great, the pressing, the intornatioaal 

Present Needs and Future Prospects 305 

question of the relation of the Chinese Empire and 
the Chinese people to the Powers of the world. 
What is to be done is altogether a matter still in 
future tenses, and we repeat, with such emphasis 
as we may, that it cannot be too soon begun." 

In the province of Shansi the officials from 
whom so much was hoped have already been 
moved to other posts. The Governor — T'sen 
Ch'un HsUan — has been sent to the province of 
Szechuan to quell the recent anti-foreign outbreak 
there, and has taken with him the reliable troops 
under his command. The official appointed to 
replace him is known to be one of the conserva* 
tives, if not actually anti-foreign. 

The enlightened and progressive Taot'ai Shen 
Tun Ho has obtained well-merited promotion and 
been removed to Peking, where he has an in- 
fluential position in connection with the Northern 
Railways of China. The post he vacated in T'ai 
Yiian Fu — head of the Foreign Bureau — ^was 
most important, and it will be very difficult to 
find a successor equally wise and efficient. 

The Fant'ai (Treasurer), second only in in- 
fluence to the Governor, — who in 1900 saved 
the lives of twenty-six foreigners, and did all 
he could to suppress the Boxers within his 
jurisdiction, — has also been removed from his 
jKist; and his successor, a Manchu from Shan- 
tung, has already shown his marked antipathy 
to foreign innovations. 

As regards the education question, the history 
of the establishment of the college at T'ai Yiian 

20 N 

3o6 Fire and Sword in Shansi 

Fu has already been given; and as to the 
universities opened by the Chinese on their 
own initiative, recent events make it very clear 
that the only reason tl^fuMaQchu Government 
wishes for VV'estefn education is "lo^find out^he 
secifit^of Qur. power*. That they are determined 
it shall if possible be a non-Christian education 
is only too evident by the various edicts published 
in connection with the coll^[e at Chi Nan Fu, the 
capital of Shantung, which absolutely preclude the 
possibility of any conscientious convert becoming 
a student in that institution. ^ Any student found 
to be at^seot thre^ times fromi'lQie ceremony (i>. 
the worship of the tablet of C(mfucius) will be 
dismissed, in order that the practice of morality 
be p romote d and rites and laws protected." By 
the agreement the Rev. Dr. Richard was obliged 
to come to with the Governor of Shansi, Christi- 
anity cannot be taught in the college at T'ai Ytian 
Fu. The rules and regulations drawn up for the 
(as yet to be) Peking University lay tiie duty 
of conducting the Confucian worship on the 
President, supported by the Vice-Presidents and 
Directors. As these rules have received the 
Imp^ial sanction, and are the latest patterns 
for schools of all grades throughout the Empire, 
it is evident that no toleration is contemplated. 

A great opportunity is now presented to 
Protestant Missions to open Christian schools 
and colleges, not in any sense to oppose, but 
rather supplement, those of the Government 
If immediate advantage be taken of the present 

Present Needs and Future Prospects 307 

opening, the results will be incalculable, as the 
Chinese will then learn what is the true founda- 
tion of the strength and greatness of Western 

Another reason for seeking to establish Christian 
schools is, that the events of two years ago were 
only possible because the Boxer leaders were able 
to work upon the dense ignorance both of officials 
and people. To get an idea of their ignorance 
we need to refer, not to their Confucian books, 
which give us only the theory, but to their 
temples and shrines, which show us the practice ; 
for ignorance and superstition go hand in hand. 
Their idols are worshipped by both rich and poor, 
high and low, learned Confucianist and ignorant 
peasant. When the Dowser-Empress returned 
to Peking, one of her first acts when entering the 
Imperial city — while bowing and smiling to the 
foreigners on one hand — was to enter the adjoin- 
ing temple and worship the god of war i 

The late Governor of Shansi — a comparatively 
enlightened man — in June last, in consequence of 
the prolonged drought, made a sacrifice to the 
" god of dragons " and the dragons of the " five 
lakes and four seas,'' and prayed them for rain. 
As his prayer was not granted, he ordered a paper 
dragon to be constructed to represent the '' dragon 
of drought" This image was then taken in pro- 
cesssion outside the south gate of the city, where 
the Governor informed high heaven that he was 
going to execute it for having taken away all the 
raia that should be given to the people of ShansL 

3o8 Fire and Sword in Shansi 

Immediately after the report of three guns an 
executioner clad in red stepped forward, and with 
a long and shining sword cut the dragon into 
seven pieces. After reading another prayer to 
high heaven and the other dragons, the Governor 
ordered the executed dragon to be burnt, and then 
returned to his y&men. 

j Tt has already been pointed out that when in 
1900, during the drought, the many appeals to the 
" gods of rain " failed to produce the much longed- 
for showers, the foreigners and their followers were 
accused of being the cause, as the " gods " were 
said to be angry at their presence in the land. 

r But education without Christianity will not bring 
about the desired end ; for we want not only to 
instruct and improve, but to mould character. 
One of India's greatest administrators, Sir Herbert 
Edwardes, said more than thirty years ago : " That 
secular education and civilisation will ever re- 
generate a nation, I do not believe. It does not 
go to the root of the matter. It is a police force 
at best. It does much to suppress crime between 
man and man, but it does nothing for sin between 
man and his Maker. Undoubtedly it softens what 
is brutal in human nature, but it leaves untouched 
what is Satanic. It was well said by one of the 
ablest missionaries in India, that ' He alone can 
make a new nation who can form a new man.' " 

Further, unless immediate advantage be taken 
of the present opportunity by Christian Missions, 
others may step in, and the education given to 
China may be not only non-Christian but anti- 

Present Needs and Future Prospects 309 

Christian, thus greatly increasing the difficulty of 
Mission work. 

It is quite true that the Chinese Government 
has lately taken further official notice of Missions 
and missionaries, for Article XIII. of the recent 
British Commercial Treaty with China runs thus : 
'* The missionary question in China being, in the 
opinion of the Chinese Government, one requiring 
careful consideration, so that, if possible, troubles 
such as have occurred in the past may be averted 
in the future. Great Britain agrees to join in a 
Commission to investigate this question, and, if 
possible, to devise means for securing permanent 
peace between converts and non-converts, should 
such a Commission be formed by China and the 
Treaty Powers interested." 

When Dr. Timothy Richard was in Peking in 
June last he was asked by the Chinese Foreign 
Office to aid them in drawing up new regulations 
to bring about a better understanding between 
Christians and non-Christians ; and he had several 
long interviews with that Board. The result was 
that the following remarkable Imperial edict ap- 
peared on 3rd July : — 

"We have received a Memorial from the 
Ministry of Foreign Affairs stating that foreigners 
from the West are divided into two religions, 
namely, Roman Catholicism and Protestantism. 
The said Ministry speaks in the highest terms 
of recommendation of Dr. Timothy Richard, who 
is at present in Peking, and is a representative of 

3IO Fire and Sword in Shann 

the Protestant Missions. We know Dr. Richard 
to be a man of great learning, high attainments, 
and strict sense of justice— qualities we deeply 
admire and commend We therefore hereby 
command the said Ministry of Foreign Aflairs 
to take the scheme the said Ministry has lately 
drawn up with the object of making Christians 
and non-Christians to live harmoniously with 
each other throughout the Empire, to Dr. 
Richard and consult him on the matter, with 
the sincere hope that, with the valuable assistance 
of that gentleman, the object in view tmy be 
arrived at, and the masses be able to live at 
peace with their neighbours the Christians.'' 

The appointment could not have fallen on a 
more worthy representative of Protestant mission- 
aries, and it is to be hoped that Dr. Richard will 
be able to do much to remove misunderstanding, 
and prevent difficulties between the Chinese 
Government and people and the Protestant Church. 

And now we may ask ourselves, ^'What has 
been the effect on the Church at lai^e of the 
facts connected with the martyrdoms so far as 
known ? " Judging from results,— -or rather want 
of results, — may it not be justly said that the 
Church has either been stunned or frightened? 
When Mr. Herbert Dixon was fleeing for his life, 
part of his last verbal message given to the faithful 
evangelist Chao was: "There is perhaps one 
chance in a hundred that we may escape, but 
if we must die we are not afraid. If the Lord 

Present Needs and Future Prospects 311 

bids us, we will cheerfully lay down our lives 
for His sake. All the missionaries are in the 
same danger; but if we are all killed, and not 
one escape, then are many more who wUl be 
certain to take our placed So far from this being 
the case, all missionary societies are complaining 
of the want of suitable candidates for the field ; 
and as to the Baptist Missionary Society, though 
it is npw mc^e than two years since all their 
workers in Shansi were swept away at cMie stroke, 
only one or two new men have volunteered to., fill 
the vacancies! True, three old missionaries---^ 
Revs. J. J, Turner, Arthur Sowerby, and Evan 
Morgan, who respectively first went to China 
twenty-six, twenty, and fifteen years ago— volun- 
teered to fill the gaps, and are now in that province^ 
But these three men can do no more than hold 
the fort at the two main stations, and until the 
vacancies are filled up it will be almost impossible 
to visit the out-stations, much less to advance 
into the vast unoccupied district ; and within the 
territory for which this one society is responsible 
there are no less than seventeen walled towns 
which have been but seldom visited, and have 
never had a resident Protestant missionary i If, 
when two years ago the news of the disasters 
first reached us, young men had come forward 
and been sent out, they would now be ready to 
begin work ; but the time has been lost — abso- 
lutely, irretrievably lost Immediate reinforce- 
ments should be sent out to make such reparation 
as is possible. 

312 Fire and Sword in Shansi 

As to what kind of men are wanted, it need 
hardly be said that all should be inspired by love 
to Christ, and be ready for difficulties and, if need 
be, dangers. While there is room, for men of 
diversified talents, one and all should be out-and- 
out evangelists. It has already been pointed out 
what a splendid opportunity tiiere is at present 
for those with the highest qualifications in Christian 
colleges and schools ; and an appeal has recently 
come for fifty qualified men — men with educational 
and journalistic ability — to join the Christian 
Literature Society in China to aid in the pre- 
paration of books for the Chinese, for which there 
is now such an unprecedented demand 

It is impossible to speak too strongly as to the 
need of fully qualified medical men to take up 
Medical Mission work ; and the opportunities in 
the future will probably be much greater than in 
the past. 

At the same time, it were to be desired that 
the portals of some of our missionary societies 
were more widely opened, and not so closely 
guarded by the bugbears of "education" and 
"culture." The sending out of men tested in 
Christian work at home, but with little or no 
" college " training, is no longer an experiment ; 
and, speaking for North China, — ^with which the 
writer has been acquainted for the last twenty 
years, — some of the best and most successful 
missionaries come within that category. The 
failures have been comparatively few ; and where 
in other parts of China the plan has not succeeded. 

Present Needs and Future Prospects 313 

it appears to have been due to the fact that the 
older missionaries — representatives, too, of Non- 
conformist bodies in England — laid so much stress 
on the distinction between " lay " and " clerical." 

A sound business training is, no doubt, of great 
advantage to the missionary; and men capable 
of superintending the erection of suitable build- 
ings for schools, hospitals, etc., have proved of 
inestimable value to several societies in saving 
both time and money. 

While industrial Missions will probably never 
occupy in China the place they do in Africa, still 
— to mention only one department — a knowledge 
of agriculture on the part of the missionary, and 
a model farm, especially in Shansi, would enable 
him to give much information to the people that 
would be invaluable. The potato (probably in- 
troduced by the Roman Catholics) has for many 
years been cultivated in many parts of China, but 
has become greatly deteriorated. A missionary 
in Shansi, who in his early days had had to do 
with agriculture, introduced, among other things, 
to the people of his district a new variety. At 
first none but the Christians would grow it ; but, 
when it became known how valuable it was on 
the market, those who before would have nothing 
to do with it went to their neighbours' patches 
and stole what they wanted ! So well does this 
variety thrive, that it has almost wholly displaced 
the growth of opium in that particular district ; and 
thus has not only added to the food supply of the 
people, but also given them a new source of revenue. 

314 I^u% ^<^d Sword in Shansi 

A successful indostdaLBllssion school has been 
carried on for some years at Chefoo in Shantung 
by Mr. James M'Mullan, where the girls are 
taught laoe-making and the boy^ employed in a 
brush factory. Its prosperity from a financial 
point of view is to some extent due to the fact 
that it is near a foreign community, where the 
wares it supplies are in demand. The last report 
(Sept 1902) mentions that five boys had been 
baptized as Christians ; and some of the girls give 
evidence of being converted by their changed 
characters and dispositions. Lace-making is also 
being carried on .in the same province by the 
English Baptist and China Inland Missions. 

After seven years' experience Mr. M^MuIIan 

says : ** We_believe that industriaLsKOrk^JfLjKis^ty 
carried on, may hftf*nmi> q'gr#*aff>r fartnr \xi the 

evangelisation and upliltifig-'Of't&ls land." 

While the majority of the wcxnen of China are 
not so secluded as those of India, there are vast 
numbers who will never be reached except 
through the agency of lady missionaries, and an 
immense field of usefulness is open to those 
endowed with sanctified common*sense. Much 
care and wisdom is undoubtedly needed, where 
there are single ladies at a station, not to 
unnecessarily run counter to the prejudices of the 
Chinese ; but it has been already proved that the 
evil surmisings can be lived down, and the ladies 
come to be treated with respect. 

The education of the girls must of course be in 
the hands of ladies ; but, unfortunately, no one has 

Present Needs and Future Prospects 315 

at present come forward to take the place of the 
late Miss Coombs, — ^the first Christian martyr in 
Shansi, — and the girls' school at T'ai Yiian Fu 
has not yet been reopened. 

The China Inland Mission, with its associated 
Missions, has already reoccupied ten former 
stations in Shansi, with some thirty missionaries 
in residence; while others are on the border of 
the province, only waiting the permission of the 
British authorities to enter. The present position 
of the English Baptist Mission has been already 
referred to; and the only missionary of the 
American Board Mission in Shansi is Dr. Atwood, 
to take up the work of the five men of that 
Mission who fell two years ago. 

Meanwhile, while we delay, what is happening ? 
The removal of friendly and progressive officials 
from Shansi has already been mentioned, but 
there are, alas I other dangers ahead. In England 
little or nothing is known as to the number and 
power of the B oman . Catholics in China Two 
years ago they received a severe blow by the 
massacre of so many of their converts, but tb&y 
have endeavoured to make capital out of it by 
putting In enormous claims for itYde iiiiiily ,' and 
arcTTOW^ niaking strenuous efibrts, not only to 
regain losf gromK^Htnrt---«»ake^iic©sh a dvances . 
Let one example suflRfce. In life province of 
Shansi there is a station which was occupied two 
years ago by Protestant missionaries, where they 
had extensive premises and a most successful 
work. To-day these premises are still in ruins, 

3i6 Fire and Sword in Shansi 

and, owing to lack of workers, no Protestant 
missionary in residence. What have the Roman 
Catholics done ? They have occupied that station 
in force, obtained large buildings, and commenced 
aggressive work by opening an op ium-as ylum (sl 
thing__whicL_lhsy Jiave jnrgr done hftf^rr), whi^l^ 
they carry on by weak Protestant Qhurch me mbe rs 
wh'omlthey have bribed .^verl What will be the 
result it this is done on any large scale (and they 
have illimitable means as regards money) may be 
gathered from a statement made some years ago 
by the veteran missionary Dr. Griffith John with 
regard to the work in his own district, to the 
ef^ct that the difficulties with the heathen had 
practically ceased, but with the Roman Catholics 
were only just commencing. 

But a third difficulty is looming in the near 
distance. Already a railway is projected into 
Shansi. Unfortunately, some of the pioneers of 
that branch of civilisation carry with them very 
loose ideas as to morals ; and if they are the first 
to convey to the Chinese of the districts through 
which the line will pass an idea of what Western 
civilisation is, the mischief done may take years 
to undo. Is it not another challenge thrown down 
to the Christian Church as to who shall be first 
in those as yet unoccupied fields ? 

Now IS OUR OPPORTUNITY. The case is 
urgent, the time may be short, and it is a 
pressing call to earnest prayer and real sacrifice 
on the part of every believer. 


Seven Years Later 

IT is now seven years since the events re- 
corded in the preceding chapters took 
place, and the following table will show what 
has been done to fill the gaps caused by the 
martyrdoms and what still remains to be done : — 

Missionaries (including Wives and Single Ladies) in 
Shansi Before and After the Massacres of 1900. 

Baptist and Shou 
Yang Missions (now 
amalgamated) . 

China Inland/ 
Christian Missionary 
Alliance, and Swed- 
ish Missions . 

Swedish Mongolian\ 
Mission . . ./ 

Scandinavian Alliance\ 
Mission . . ./ 

Before the 









• •• 






• • • 




• • • 





• • • 


As regards the Baptist Missionary Society, 
the twenty-one missionaries in Shansi in April 
1907 include three senior missionaries with 



3i8 Fire and Sword in Shansi 

their wives, and one Zenana lady, who were on 
furlough in 1900 and have returned to their 
stations. To fill actual vacancies caused by the 
martyrdoms four men and five ladies are still 

Besides filling these gaps, men are needed 
for the proposed " Forward Movement " in this 

As has been already mentioned, Shansi was 
first visited by missionaries of the Baptist 
Missionary Society in 1876, when Rev. J. J. 
Turner and Rev. Dr. Timothy Richard took 
part in famine relief. The China Inland Mission 
commenced work at the same time, and by 
1884 the American Board had also sent men 
who occupied two stations to the south of T'ai 
Yuan Fu the capital. 

It was then considered advisable to discuss 
the question of a division of the field, so that 
there should be no overlapping. At the request 
of the missionaries of our Society at that time 
in the province, that portion extending from T'ai 
Yuan Fu northwards to the inner arm of the 
Great Wall was regarded as the sphere of the 
Baptist Society. 

The central portion of the province is one 
great plain some 3000 feet above the sea — 
and two stations were occupied, T'ai Yiian Fu 
and Hsin Chou, with out-stations stretching over 
the plain in charge of Chinese evangelists. 

To the west and north-west of our main 
stations is a district comprising an area of 

Seven Years Later 319 

something like 14,000 square miles, and con- 
taining eleven walled towns besides numerous 
market towns and villages. Separated from the 
T'ai Yiian Fu plain by a range of hills nearly 
6000 feet high, across which there are no cart 
roads but only mule tracks, following in many 
places the beds of rivers which are rendered 
quite impassable in the rainy season, this district, 
though within our sphere of influence for twenty- 
two years, was practically a terra*incognita to us. 

Mr. Lower of Hsin Chou and I visited this 
region in the spring of 1906 with a view of 
laying its needs before the committee and the 

Nearly the whole of this district is mountainous, 
and during the four weeks of uninterrupted travel- 
ling (except Sundays) which it took us to visit 
the eleven towns, only in two or three places 
did we come across limited districts where wheeled 
vehicles could be utilised. 

Here and there we passed through well-wooded 
tracts, but, on the whole, trees were conspicuous 
by their absence, and some parts have been 
absolutely deforested, the trees having been cut 
down for fuel 

Though our road led us now through valleys, 
where we had to cross and recross frozen rivers, 
and then along narrow mountain paths, where 
a false step would have sent mule and rider rolling 
down to the rivers below, we met with no serious 
mishap, though occasionally one or another of our 
party would have a fall from bis steed. 

320 Fire and Sword in Shansi 

Now, what Protestant mission work has been 
done in this region ? 

As long ago as 1879 some missionaries of 
the China Inland Mission travelled through 
preaching and selling scriptures. The late Mr. 
Herbert Dixon (martyred in 1900) visited one 
city — Ching Loh Hsien — three days' journey 
from Hsin Chou ; and in the extreme north 
and south we heard of other missionaries who 
had since 1900 visited these districts. In the 
city of Hoh Pao Ying, situated on the banks of 
the Yellow River, we were told that Scandinavian 
missionaries had lived there for four or five years 
previous to the Boxer trouble, but had never come 
back. Most of the people had never seen a 
foreigner before. The whole region is practically 
virgin soil so far as Protestant mission work is 

Why should this field be occupied by our 
Society, and that without further delay? 

I. Because twenty-two years ago the mission- 
aries of the Baptist Missionary Society then in 
Shansi asked the missionaries of the China Inland 
Mission that this portion of the province should 
be reserved solely for the Baptist Missionary 
Society, the China Inland Mission to work the 
other parts. 

2r In consequence of the above arrangement 
other missions have refrained from sending their 
missionaries into that district to reside, with the 
result that the people have been unevangelised up 
to the present 

Seven Years Later 321 

3. Because the needs of this people were laid 
upon the heart of one of the martyrs — Mr. 
Herbert Dixon. What better memorial for him 
than that stations should be opened in the 
places he so earnestly desired to see evan- 
gelised ? 

4. The greater part of this district is com- 
paratively untouched by the Roman Catholics. 
Immediatety to the south of it (at Lin Hsien) 
they are in strong force. As Mr. Shorrock of 
our Shansi mission says : '' It is much easier for 
us to secure a footing in places where they have 
not been." 

Here, then, is an opportunity for nine men at 
least (including three medicals), for three strategic 
points should be occupied with as little delay as 
possible with three men in each. 

A splendid sphere of service is presented to 
those who — constrained by the love of Christ — 
desire to carry out His commands and yet do 
not wish to " build upon another man's founda- 
tion." During the first year or two — after 
acquiring sufficient knowledge of the language — 
much good might be done by itinerating and 
learning something of the people and district, as 
well as doing evangelistic work. 

Patience, tact, and good humour, with sanctified 
common sense, will help a man through many of 
the initial difficulties in opening a station in a 
new district. 

What an opportunity, too, is presented to 
churches or individuals to support, and be re- 

322 Fire and Sword in Shansi 

presented by, a missionary of their own on the 
field I 

In consequence of the widespread desire for 
" Western Education/' a great opportunity is now 
presented to Protestant missions to open Christian 
schools and colleges, not in any sense to oppose, 
but rather supplement, those of the Government 
If immediate advantage be taken of the present 
opening, the results will be incalculable, as the 
Chinese will then learn what is the true founda- 
tion of the strength and greatness of Western 

Further, unless the present opportunity be seized 
by Christian missions, others will step in, and the 
education given to China may be not only non- 
Christian but anti-Christian, thus greatly increas- 
ing the difficulty of mission work. 

A grant has been made by the Arthington 
Trustees to establish a Christian Training 
Institution in ShansL In this it would be the 
aim : — , 

1. To train teachers, first for mission schools, 
and then for such others as needed them. By 
Imperial Edict every provincial capital is to have 
its university, every prefectural city its high 
school, every county town its middle school, and 
every village its primary school. Village schools 
all over the Empire needing teachers with a 
knowledge of Western subjects! To prepare 
and train men in excess of the need is an 

2. To train evangelists, for if China is to be 

Seven Years Later 323 

evangelised in this generation it must be done by 
the Chinese themselves, 

3. To train men who shall be strong and wise 
leaders and teachers in the church, only it must 
be done now. The men who will be leaders in 
China, in the church or in the world, twenty or 
thirty years hence, are in school or college to-day. 

By a still more recent Imperial Edict schools 
for girls are to be established throughout the 
Empire, and permission is granted to engage 
foreign as well as Chinese teachers. 

Here, then, is a splendid sphere both for men 
and women apt to teach, with a love for the young, 
and who would devote all their energies for Christ. 

The use of the museum as an educational and 
evangelistic agency has been clearly demonstrated 
at Chi Nan Fu, where Mr. Whitewright is in 

When the new premises were opened by the 
Treasurer or Lieutenant-Governor the Rev. R. C. 
Forsyth wrote : " Never before in the history of 
missions in this province has there been such 
open and hearty recognition of our presence, and 
interest taken in our proceedings. Never before 
have all ranks and classes been brought together 
in so harmonious and friendly relations, and this 
augurs well for the work which has now com- 
menced so auspiciously." 

At Chefoo, in Shantung, a museum has been 
opened for many years in connection with the 
American Presbyterian mission, and Dr. Corbett 
missionary of fifty years' standing-^said it 

324 Fire and Sword in Shansi 

had proved fheir most successful evangelistic 

A small beginning has been made at T'ai 
Yiian Fu, and, during the first five days it was 
opened, ten diousand people — including seventeen 
hundred women and children — ^passed through it 
Owing to the utterly inadequate staff of workers 
it cannot be used regularly, but on the afternoons 
when it is opened about four hundred people 
visit it 

The Arthington Trustees have granted ;f 1000 
for the enlargement of this museum, including 
lecture-hall, reading and reception rooms; and 
when completed it will give much better facilities 
than we have at present for reaching the officials 
and students. Here, again, the great need is for 
someone thoroughly qualified to devote himself 
entirely to this work, the men on the field 
already having tlieir hands full with their own 

Since 1900, medical mission work in Shansi 
has received an impetus, for whereas at that date 
there was only one doctor in that part of the 
province allocated to our Society, there are now 
four, one at Hsin Chou, and three at T'ai Yiian 
Fu. Of the latter, one is a lady, and with her is 
a fully trained nurse. The hospital for men at 
T'ai Yiian Fu is partially rebuilt on a new site, 
and has been in use since January 1905. A native 
house was purchased and adapted as a hospital 
for women, but it is hoped next year (1908) to 
build and equip a good women's hospital, towards 

Seven Years Later 325 

which the Arthington Trustees have made a 
grant of ;^iooo. 

Other fully qualified doctors are needed im- 
mediately, one for Shou Yang, where there are 
already suitable premises for carrying on medical 
work; and three for the unoccupied district to 
the north-west of the province already referred to. 


FOR the martyrs of the American Board Mis- 
sion a memorial service was held at T'ai Ku 
Hsien on 9th August 1901, and the following 
account is condensed from one published at the 
time : — 

"On 31st July 1900, only a little more than a 
year ago, occurred one of those outrages which, 
when it became known, horrified the Christian 
world, but which was apparently very soon forgotten 
except by those intimately concerned. On that 
day six American missionaries, Mr. and Mrs. Clapp, 
Mr. Williams, Mr. Davis, Miss Bird, and Miss 
Partridge, together with several Chinese Christians, 
were cruelly done to death. 

" The news of this cowardly deed was soon carried 
to Fen Chou Fu, where seven missionaries and 
three children were cooped up in their own mission 
house. The tidings deepened the gloom already 
hanging over the heroic little band, and took away 
any fragment of hope they may have had for their 
own safety. On isth August they were inveigled 
out of their house on pretence of being sent to the 
coast. Carts were provided for them, and they 
started off with some hopes of reaching a place of 
safety; but had only gone about six miles when 
they were set upon by some local soldiers who 



Appendix 327 

were in hiding, and foully murdered. Those who 
fell were Mr. and Mrs, Charles Price and one child 
(Florence), Mr. and Mrs. Atwater and two children 
(Celia and JBertha), Mr. and Mrs. Lundgren, and 
Miss Eldred. 

" Dr. Atwood, the sole survivor of this Mission, 
was in 1900 in America; and when, in 1901, he 
returned to Shansi he decided that all the mission- 
aries should be buried together. About a mile to 
the east of the city of T'ai Ku is a flower-garden, 
which belonged to a well-to-do man who was 
deeply implicated in the Boxer movement After 
some negotiations it was arranged that this garden 
should be handed over to the Mission as a burial- 
ground ; the owner, gentry, and officials all agree- 
ing to such arrangement. 

" On Wednesday 7th August 1901 a party from 
T'ai Yiian Fu, consisting of Mr. Duncan, Dr. Creasy 
Smith, Major Pereira, and Dr. Edwards, arrived to 
take part in the memorial service ; Mr. Hoste and 
Mr. Ernest Taylor of the China Inland Mission 
having arrived a day or two earlier. The coffins 
containing the remains of the Fen Chou Fu martyrs 
arrived on the 8th ; and Dr. Atwood at once arranged 
with the officials to have the service the next day. 

" The bodies of the T'ai Ku martyrs had been 
carelessly buried just outside the south gate, but 
were sufa^tequently disinterred and placed in coffins. 
On this spot three large mat tents had been erected, 
forming three sides of a square, and the fourth side 
was partially occupied by a large pavilion which 
had been fitted up as a guest-room. Under the 
centre tent were arranged the coffins containing 
the remains of the T'ai Ku martyrs, while those 
from Fen Chou Fu were on the right. On the left 
were fourteen coffins, containing such remains as 
could be found of the Chinese Christians who had 

3^8 Appendix 

been killed in the vicinity. Riound the tent were 
arranged banners with mottoes on them, ten of 
which had been presented by the local merchant 
guilds. In front of the main pavilion, under cano- 
pies of richly embroidered silk, were the memorial 
banners provided by the officials. Instead of the 
wreaths, such as were prepared at T'ai Yiian Fu 
and Hsin Chou, were a number of plants in pots. 

''When the mourners (foreigners) arrived they 
were received by the officials and representatives 
of the gentry and merchants in the central pavilion. 
A visit was then paid to the different tents, and 
the scrolls presented by the officials, gentry, mer- 
chants, and others inspected. The final arrange- 
ments having been made, the procession started, 
headed by the official and his motley crew of 
runners bearing his insignia of office. Then came 
the memorial banners presented by the officials, 
and after them a few soldiers — ^mounted and on 
foot. The foreign mourners came next, followed 
by the Chinese mourners, the complimentary scrolls 
presented by the gentry and merchant guilds — and 
last of all the thirty coffins, 

"Such a procession created a great sensation. 
The streets were thronged with people, and it was 
nearly noon before the first stop was made outside 
the mission house, where the massacre had occurred. 
Here a pavilion had been erected in the street ; and 
when both foreign and Chinese mourners had 
arrived a short service was held — the officials also 
being present The service ended, the procession 
was re-formed and slowly wended its way through 
the street to the east gate, through the suburb and 
along about a mile of country road to the garden 
cemetery. Here also a pavilion had been erected 
as a temporary guest-room, and a long wait ensued 
pending the arrival of the coffins. 

Appendix 329 

** When these had arrived and been placed near 
the open graves, the officials, gentry, merchants, 
and mourners assembled in front of the pavilion. 
The chief magistrate then ascended a platform, 
having on his left an official specially selected to 
read an address, while on his right was another 
who acted as master of ceremonies. At the word 
of command from this man the address was read, 
after which he gave the word and the magistrate 
made three low bows towards the graves. Then 
representatives of the scholars, gentry, and mer- 
chants ascended the platform In turn and made 
three bows. Their part of the proceedings con- 
cluded, they, with the official, withdrew and another 
Christian service was held — this time with much 
less interruption than attended the one conducted 
in the city. 

" Thus in Shansi another * God's Acre ' was con- 
secrated by becoming the resting-place of the 
remains of those who ' loved not their lives unto 
the death.' ** 


Ambler, Mr., 151. 

American Board missionaries, 
arrival in Shansi, 46 ; massacre 
of, 88, 92; memorial service 
for, 150, 327; massacre of 
Chinese Christians connected 
with, 175-176; diaries and 
last letters of, 267-302. 

Arthington Trusted, 322-324, 

Aspden, Miss M., 99. 

Atwater, Ernestine and Mary, 

73, 81, 298. 
Atwater, Rev. £. R. and Mrs., 

88, 212, 267, 271, 274, 275, 

276, 286, 301, 328. 
Atwood, Dr., 122, 125, 126, 

150, 273, 3I5» 328. 

Bailloud, General, 119. 
Baptist Missionary Society, 317, 

318, 320. 
Barratt, Mr., 94. 
Belcher, Mr., 151. 
Beynon, Rev. W. T. and Mrs., 

46, 60, 68, 70, 300. 
Bird, Miss R., 93, 212, 293- 

294, 301 » 327. 
Blomberg, Mr. and Mrs., loo. 

Brooks, Rev. S. P., 49, 50. 

Burton, Miss, 91. 

Carlbson, Mr. N., loa 
Chao, evangelist, 96. 
Chefoo, 323. 

Chi Chou, news from, 91. 
Chieh Hsiu Hsien, flight from, 

China Inland Mission, 317, 318. 

Chi Nan Fu, 323. 

Chinese Christians, fidelity of, 

77. 96, 97, 173-21 1, 285, 
289, 290, 294; memorial 
services for, 152 ; persecutions 
of, 56, 1 1 2-1 16, 172-21 1, 
285 ; recantation of, 1 11. 

Chinese officials, guilty, not 
punished, 20, 21, 140, 141 ; 
reinstated in office, 21-29. 

Chinese servants, fidelity of, 
69, 70. 

Ching Loh Hsien, 32a 

Ch'ing, Prince, 122. 

Christian Herald (New York) 
famine relief fimd, 157. 

Christian and Missionary 
Alliance, missionaries of, 
arrival in Shansi, 46; mas- 
sacre of, 100, 103, 317. 

Christian Training Institution, 
Shansi, 322. 

Chu Yiu WSn, Christian photo- 
grapher of T*ai Yttan Fu, 
letter from, 112-116; be- 
friends schoolgirls, 205, 207, 

Clapp, Rev. D. H. and Mrs., 

93. 176, 301. 327. 
Clarke, Mr. G. W., 46. 
Clarke, Miss Mildred, 60, 67, 

Conger, Major, American 

Minister, 49. 
Coombs, Miss Edith A., 60, 63, 

64, 65, 67, 206, 207, 209, 

210, 212, 213-221, 298. 
Cooper, Mr. and Mrs. £. J., 94. 
Corbett, Dr., 323. 




Darrock, Mr., 164. 

Davis, Rev. F. W., 93, 272, 276, 

301 » 327. 
Dixon, Rev. and Mrs. Herbert, 

96, 147, 180, 212, 310, 320. 
Dobscm, Miss Edith, 89. 
Dreyer, Mr. and Mrs., 84. 
Duncan, Rev. and Mrs. Moir, 

126, 147, i5o» 161, 165, 328. 
Duval, Miss, 73, 81, 221-224. 

Edicts, Imperial, ordering 
punishment of guilty official, 
31 ; concerning Dr. T. 
Richard, 309. 

Education, Christian, need of, in 
China, 306-308. 

Eldred, Miss A., 88, 267, 276, 

297, 301. 328: 
Engvall, Miss J., 100. 
Ennals, Mr., 97, 148, 181. 

Famine relief in Shansi, 150; 

in Shansi, 157 ; proclamation 

concerning, 158. 
Farthing, Rev. Geo. B. and 

Mrs., 56, 60, 67, 174, 206, 

212, 249, 254-267, 297, 300. 
Fen Chou Fu, 87 ; massacres at, 

88 ; last letters from, 267-293. 
Fors)rth, Rev. R. C, 323. 
Forward Movement, 318. 
French, Miss E., 83, 84, 297. 

Gates, Miss, 93. 
Gauntlett, Miss £., 83, 84. 
German troops take the Chihli- 

Shansi passes, 117-119. 
Glover, Mr. and Mrs., 93. 
Guthrie, Miss, 297. 

Hbaysman, Miss Mary, 90. 
Hedlund, Miss M. , 100. 
Hewett, Dr., 94, 95. 
Higgs, Miss E., 83, 84. 
Hill, Rev. David, 45. 
Hoddlfr, Mr. Alexander, 60, 68, 

70, 173, 225-226. 
Hoh Pao Ying, 320. 

Home, Miss, 45. 

Hoskyn, The Misses, 84. 

Hoste, Mr. D. E., 126, 138, 
150, 328. 

Ho Tsin, massacre near, 91. 

Hsiao Ih Hsien, massacre at, 
87, 272, 279. 

Hsi Chou, flight from, 89. 

Hsin Chou, massacre of mission- 
aries at, 96-98 ; massacre of 
Chinese Christians in district 
of, 180-196, 318. 

Hum, Miss G., 89. 

Huston, Miss, 94. 

Tanson, Mr. and Mrs., 46, 99. 

Indemnity, the, and the 
Roman Catholics, 165-172 ; 
claim for, waived by two Pro- 
testant Missions, 154; for 
property of Missions or 
missionaries, 134; for Pro- 
testant Chinese Christians, 
134; amount of, 157. 

Industrial Missions, 313. 

Jennings, Mr., 297. 

Johanson, Miss A. , 100. 

John, Dr. Griffith, evidence re- 
garding Roman Catholics, 316. 

Johnson, Miss E., 83, 84, 297. 

Jones, Captain Watts, massacre 
of, 107. 

Jowett, Rev. J. H., estimate ol 
Miss Coombs, 214, 220. 

Judd, Mr., 151. 

Karlberg, Mr. G. E., 100. 
Kay, Mr. and Mrs. Duncan, 86. 
KetUer, General von, 118, 167. 
King, Mr. Thomas H., 46. 
King, Miss, 91. 
KU Wu Hsien, flight from, 86. 
Kwei Hwa Ch'eng, massacre of 

missionaries in neighbourhood 

of, 104-109. 

Lao Chen, 62, 63. 
Larsson, Mr. O. A., loa 



Last Letters: — Mr. Barratt's, 

95 ; Miss Bird's, 293-294 ; 

Miss Duval's, 223-224; Rev. 

G. B. Farthing's, 2S3; Dr. 

Levitt's, 66 ; Mr. M 'Connell's, 

91 ; Miss Partridge's, 295- 

302; Mr. Pigotfs, 73-76; 

Rev. C. W. Price's, 269-290 > 

Mrs. Price's, 291-293; Mr. 

Robinson's, 245 ; Mr. Stokes', 

253 ; Mrs. Stokes', 253 ; Mr. 

WoodrofFe's, 96 ; Mr. Young's, 

91 ; destroyed by Chinese 

officials, 79. 
Lawson, Mr. and Mrs., 134. 
Lees, Rev. Jonathan, 44. 
Li Hung Chang, 117, 122, 125, 

126, I99i 205. 
Li Ping Heng, 48. 
Liu, evangelist, 176. 
Liu Hao, 62, 64, 70, 71, So, 174. 
Liu P'ai Yuan, 62, 64, 70, 71, 

80, 173. 
Lovitt, Dr. and Mrs., 60, 61, 

67, 212 ; memorial sketch of, 

226-230, 300. 
Lower, Mr., 319. 
Lowrie, Rev. J[. Walter, 127. 
Lu An Fu, not at, and flight 

'from, 93. 
Lu Cheng Hsien, flight from, 94. 
Lundell, Miss J., 100. 
Lundgren, Mr. and Mrs., 88, 

267, 273, 274, 276, 297, 301, 

Lutley, Mr. and Mrs., 84. 
Lyman, Mr., 164. 

M ARTYR'ROLL of Shansi, 13-15, 

Martyrs, Protestant missionary, 
commemorative tablet erectea, 
132 ; memorial service at T'ai 
YUan Fu, 135 ; memorial 
service at Hsin Chou, 147 ; 
memorial service at T'ai Ku 
Hsien, 158, 327. 

Massacres, reparation for, plan 
suggested, 122, 126; proposi- 

tions discussed, 132 ; agree- 
ment come to, 132, 134; of 
British subjects, no judicial 
inquiry held concerning, 20, 

M*Connell, Mr. and Mrs., 91. 

M*Currach, Rev. and Mrs. Wm., 

97, 147, 180. 
M'Kie, Mr., 86, 89. 
M'Kie, Mr. and Mrs. Stewart, 

Maclaren, Dr. Alexander, tribute 

to Mr. and Mrs. Pigott, 240. 
M'Mullan, Mr. James, and 

industrial Missions, 314. 
Medical Missions, 312, 324. 
Memorials and last letters, 

Memorial services, see Martyrs ; 

Protestant misnonary, su 

Chinese Christians. 
Middleton, Mr., 151. 
Missionaries, lack of, 311. 
Mission work in Shansi, 44,47. 
Morgan, Rev. Evan, 311. 

Nathan, Miss Edith, 9a 
Nathan, Miss Maiy, 90. 

Officials, Chinese, culpability 

of, 76. 79, 90, 97» 99, loi- 
109, 129, 140, 141 ; friend- 
liness of, 71, 83, 86, 89, 90, 

92, 98, 130* 151. 305- 
Ogren, Mr. and Mrs., 88, 272, 

273. 283. 
Opium in Shansi, 43. 
Orr Ewing, Mr. A., 126. 

Palmer, Miss R., 84. 
Partridge, Miss L. , 93, 272, 295- 

302, 327. 
Peat, Mr. and Mrs., 89. 
Peck, Mr., 164. 
Pereira, Major, 126, 129, 139, 

150, 328. 
Persson, Mr. and Mrs., 100. 
Petterson, Mr. E., 100. 
Pigott, Mr. and Mrs., 2t, 72- 



82, 140, 177, 222, 226, 228, 
231-243, 299. 

Pifott, William Wellesley, 72- 
52, 239. 

Ping Yao Hsien, riot at, 83. 

P'ing Yang Fu, 84 ; persecution 
of Chinese Christians in dis- 
Irict of, 197-199. 

Porter, Dr. H. P., 49. 

Price, Rev. C. W. and Mrs., 
88, 212, 267, 269-293, 301, 

Proclamation on waiving of 
claim by Shou Yang Mission, 
155 ; concerning Christian 
Herald famine relief fund, 
158; to Chinese Christians, 
175, 28s, 288-289. 

Protestant missionaries, invited 
back to Shansi, 120 ; journey 
from Peking to T'ai Yiian Fu, 
126-131 ; invited by Gover- 
nor to feast, 139; invited by 
Treasurer to feast, 151. 

Rassmussen, Miss K., 83, 84. 
Renaut, Miss, 97, 148. 
Retrograde movements, 303- 

Rice, Miss, 94. 

Richard, Rev. Timothy, D.D., 
45, 120, 122, 126, 133, 160, 
161, 306, 309, 318. 

Riots in Cnina, recent, causes 
of, 21-29. 

Robinson, Mr. John, 73, 79, 
80, 81, 140, 243-246. 

Roman Catholics, at Tai Ytian 
Fu, 60, 70 ; massacre of, 174, 
175 ; efforts to retake lost 
p[round, 315 ; the, and the 
mdemnity, 165-172 ; suffer- 
ings of, 104-109. 

Satow,^ Sir Ernest, 20, 31. 
Saunders, Mr. and Mrs., S3, 94, 

Scandinavian Alliance, Mission, 
3»7, 320. 

Schofield, Dr. Harold, 46, 234- 

Searell, Miss, 87, 272, 297. 

Shansi, Province of, boundaries, 
33 ; loess formation in, 34 ; 
rivers, 35 ; roads, 36 ; climate, 
37 ; rainfall, 37 ; mineral 
products, 38 ; meteorolc^cal 
notes, 39; agricultural pro- 
ducts, 40 ; transport, 41 ; 
people, early history, 42 ; 
people, character, 52; archi- 
tecture, 43 ; police, 128 ; 
University, see Western 
Learning, Collie of; rail- 
ways, 316 ; sphere of Baptist 
Society, 318. 

Shekleton, Miss M. E., 199. 

Shto Tun Ho, Taot*ai, 120, 
121, 122, 128, 130, 133, 139, 
140, 151, 162, 170, 171, 305. 

Shorrock, Mr., 321. 

Shou Yang Hsien, culpability of 
official at, 76, 79; foreigners 
resident at, 72-73, 77 ; last let- 
ter from, 73, 74-76 ; flight of 
missionaries from, 77 ; return 
to, 785 second flipjht from, 
80; massacre of missionaries 
from, at T*ai Ytian Fu, 82; 
memorial service at, 152 ; 
repair of Mission premises at, 
159 ; massacre of Chinese 
Christians at, 176-180 ; doctors 
needed, 325. 

Simpson, Mr. and Mrs., 60, 63, 
67, 71 ; memorial sketch of, 
246, 30a 

Smith, Dr. Arthur H., 4, 49. 

Smith, Dr. Creasy, 126, 147, 
150, 328. 

Smith, Miss M. E., 99. 

Soederstrom, Mr., 151, 152. 

So P'ing Fu, massacre at, 99- 

Sowerby, Rev. Arthur, 133, 
170; Mr. and Mrs. Pigott, 
232-238, 311. 

Stevens, Miss Jane, 60, 67, 300 



Stewart, Miss Ellen M., 60, 
67 ; memorial sketch of, 248- 

250. 300* 
Stokes, Mr. and Mrs., 60, 67, 

206, 227 ; memorial sketch 

of, 250-253, 300. 
Swallow, Mr., 164. 
Swedish Missions in Shansi, 86. 
Swedish missionaries, massacre 

of, 99-109* 317. 


Tai Ku Hsibn, massacre at, 92; 
memorial service at, 327. 

T'ai Yuan Fu, massacre at, 59 ; 
Court at, III; memorial 
service at, 135; schoolgirls, 
story of, 199-21 1 ; museum 
and hospital at, 324. 

Ta Ning Hsien, massacre at, 90. 

Ta Tung Fu, massacre at, 98-99. 

Taylor, Mr. Ernest, 126, 150, 

Taylor, Mrs. Hudson, 45. 

Tjader, Mr. C. H., 126. 

Ts'en Ch*un HsUan, Governor of 
Shansi, 120; interview with 
missionaries, 139; address at 
memorial service, 141 ; issues 
proclamation for the Shou 
Yang Mission, 155 ; sub- 
scribes towards rebuilding 
hospital, 160; removed to 
Szechuan, 305. 

Turner, Rev. J. J., 44, 45, 134, 
181, 311,318. 

Underwood, Rev. T. J. and 
Mrs., 68, 97, 148, 181, 300. 

University, Shansi, see Western 
Learning, College of. 

Voluntary contributions to- 
wards rebuilding T'ai Ytian 
Fu hospital, 160. 

Waldersbb, Count von, 118, 

Western I^earning, College of, 
at T*ai YUan Fu, proposed a£ 
part reparation for massacres, 
123 ; support of, 124, 165 ; 
Governor Ts'en's conditions, 
161 ; final arrangements, 161- 
165, 306. 

Western learning and religious 
liberty, 163, 305, 322. 

Whitchurch, Miss, 87, 272, 

Whitehouse, Rev. F. S. and 
Mrs., 60, 67, 300. 

Whitewright, Mr., 323. 

Whiting, Rev. A., 45. 

Williams, Rev. G. L., 93, 301, 

Williamson, Rev. Alexander, 

Wilson, Dr. and Mrs. William 

Millar, 60, 61, 67, 300. 
Women, work among, 314-315. 
Woodroffe, Mr., 95. 

Young, Mr. and Mrs., 91, 197. 
Yo Yang Hsien, flight from, 

Yiian Shih K'ai, 49. 

Yii Hsien, history of, 48 ; 
memorandum of charges 
against, 50; a{)pointed Go- 
vernor of Shansi, 51 ; arrival 
in Shansi, 56 ; deceives the 
missionaries, 69; orders and 
personally superintends the 
massacre at T*ai Yiian Fu, 72, 
82 ; responsible for massacres 
throughout the province, 104- 
109; leaves T'ai YUan Fu, 
117; r^;retted and honoured 
by people of T*ai Yuan Fu, 
117; Li Hung Chang's 
opinion of, 125. 

YUin Ch'eng, flight from, 86. 

Yung Ning Chou, flight from, 

Ytt Wu, flight from, 94. 



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miming of a t>hrase 6r a descrititioh. It sfaotOd be on every 
pastor's table, and on the shelf of every student of the Bible."— 
Mission Ftdd, 

Arabia : The Cradle of Islam 

niustratcfd, Mtti», demji' Std, cloCh, 7s. 6d. 

SAMUEL ii, ZWEMER, D.D., F.R.0.8. 

Dr ^wemer has studied Arabia as firobably no other man has, 
altd th6 ^estilt of Obsef v&tion. experience, and reading are set 
f6nh Ifi tiies^ ** Studies in the ueography. People, and Pofitios of 
th6 Peniiisula ; witn &n Account of Islam ahd Missionary Work." 
Not merely is it thorough in its materiaL but the style is vivid 
and interesting, and whftt ttflft come td hd ItnGWn as " the neglected 
peninsula'* springs, under his touoh, iftto new lifei 

Topsy-Torvjr Land ; Arabia Pictured for Children 
Demy 8vo, decorated cloth. 28. 6d. net. 


Written in a viva<^otis and ^imt>le t^ay ; fiiii of fun-in- 
eatnest; alive \^ith IfifM'mation on the oddities of desert, 
childreti, amnsdment^, cttdtoms, and even the Arabic nuzzle : it 
connects all ii^tn the mi^onafy enbrt to set tops^-£urvy^jife 
rigHt-side tib. '^ We ihight go oil almost endlessly ; but it wffl be 
l:tettef td get thcf bdOk, and if ycm do, you wiU Surely read ii 
without coaxing.*'— C/iurc^ Stanaard, 


Persian Life and Customs 

Illustrated, IMap, demy 8vo, cloth, 78. 6d. 


Iiitcrwovcu \vith» and iUurninating, the more serious items 
of information, are many incidents of residence and travel in the 
Land of the lion and the Sun, all together combiniuK to make a 
most valuable and popular book on a land but little ImoYni. It 
is evident, as the ^F. Tribune says, that "the author has 
studied with much care the condition of Persia and its future 

Missions in Eden 

Illustrated, crown 8vo, cloth, Ss. 6d. 

'* Glimpses of life in the Valley of the Euphrates." 

jAmsfi.lATn tliA TTaIit -^ ^^^^ History of Ancient 

iierasaiem line noiy Jerusalem; with an Account of 

the Modern City and its Conditions, Political, Religious, and 
Demy 8vo, cloth extra, with 15 Illustrations and 4 Maps, 7s. 6d. 


Til A Tift-li AnarkAl • or, The Light of the Holy Land on the 
1 ne JTinn UOSpei , y^^p Ckwpels of the fioly Book 

Crown 8vo, cloth, with Map and Illustrations, 5s. 

Bey. J. M. P. OTTS, DJ>., LL.D. 

** We can commend the book as being really illustrative of 
the Gospel storjr. . . . The book has some pleasant iUustrations, 
which add considerably to its interest and veJue."*— 7%e Record. 

India's Problem, Krishna or Christ 

Illustrated, demy 8vo, cloth, 5s. net. JOHN P. JONES, D.D. 

There is probably no phase of life in India in regard to which 
the popular impression is so hazy as the religious life. The 
religions are very vague to most, except as they read this book, 
of which The Congregationalist says that more than " any one 
or even any half dozen volumes, it presents in attractive, 
readable form much that is interesting and valuable to the 
student of religions in India, and the relations of Christianity to 


Hinduism and Christianity 

Third Edition. CrowD 8yo, cloth extra, Ss. 6d. net. 

Author of " The Holy Spirit, the Paraclete," etc 

More than two-thirds of this book has been entirely rewritten, 
so as to make it a suitable Handbook for Students of Missions 
and Ck)mparative Religious. 

Islam and Christianity in India 

Demy Svo, doth, 4b. net. B. M. WHEBRT, D.D. 

Most people do not realise that there are more than sixty 
million Moslems in India, thirty million in China, and thirty 
million more in Malaysia and the East Indies. Dr Wherry shows 
how these Moslems came there, how their religion has been 
modified by Hinduism, Buddhism, and Ck>nf uoianism ; what is 
being done to reach them, and what hope there is in dealing wiUi 

TTaIv TTiTvifl1a.iffi. The Religion, Traditions, and Scenery of 
AOiy Himalaya ^^ ProvSices of Kumaun and QarhwaL 

Large crown Svo, doth extra, with 16 full-page Illustratious, 

fie, net. Roy. E. S. OAKLEY 

of the London Missionary Society, Almora, Northern India. 

'* He has studied the people, their traditions, and their re- 
ligion, and has written a very enlightening book on the subject 
of his study. Mr Oakley has given us a really valaable book."— 

*' For the study of rdigion get a book that covers a small 
field first— get a fascinating oook. For the study of the religions 
of India begin with Oaklers * Himalaya.' "--^ac^fKwi^ory Times, 


Probablv no country has had as much vrritten about Its 
social conditions as India. Yet so diverse are the different 
sections, so widely separated are the castes, so varied is the life^ 
that the various books supplement rather than repeat each 
other. Bach has its own place, fills a certain need. 

Village Work in India 

Illustrated, crown 8vo, cloth 3s. 6d. NORICAN BU8SBIX 

India is pre-eminently the land of villages. In no other 
country do cities play comparatively so unimportant a part. 
Village life, village work, are the key to missionary success. 
This Dook does not aim *' to present history, statistics or even 
argument, but to delineate tne life and condition of those 
Indian masses among which our work is carried on. This is 
admirably*'-'The Interior, 


The High Oaste Hixida Woman 

Crown 8vo, cloth Ss. 6d. net. PANHTfA RAMABAI 

A powerful preseutation of one of the most tragic features of 
Hindu life, child Diarria|^ and enforced widowhood, by one who 
knows better than any foreigner can, its terrible snifenng. . **To 
Americans it will be a reveltftion,^ says The Critic, and one 
which Aii^t to oome td every (Tfaristian woman. 

Wrongs of Indian Womanhood, 

lUustrated, laige orown Svo, doth, 5e. . ^ ^..^^ ^_ 

Krt ttAMtrt B. FOLLSR 

Wider in Me 0Dope than Pandtta Ramabai^ book, this 
gathers np the reoords of f^ claascto, ** lifts the ourtaini and lets 
OS see the awful degMation which oharaeCeriiite tauUoiis of 
women in India."— JfiMtonary Be^iew 0f the W&rkk 

lltos&iCd ttorsi India 

Illustrated, large crown Svo, (doth, 9b. 


'Tbmo Talks about India, Me PePOplM,- Helicons and Oiistoms, 
written in elear style, wttk earnest tniriU by a missiflDaly 
woman. who has seen many years' service in North India, are 
f ascinaiing, and got up in a i&nn ** worthy of the notable con- 
tents.*— 2vi« Interior, 

Tho Pea of firatima 

Illustrated, large erown 8vo, doth, aB..Cd.-net..>^ ^ . 

'*the i'en of Brahma" is ttM .Writing by Brahma of the Mt6 
of each individual on the skull, recorded by the irregular 

flflBiiRs, whicitt fltti unsousfsam, tbif hW&cst of this ftwfeUe 

teaching in South India is most vividly set forth in these stories. 

Daughters of Darkness in Sunny India 

Grown 8vo, doth. Si. 6d. net. BIATBIOB K HAKBAKD 

A isMirtf elabMbttf stM^y by tit^ wriKtf m tMe abe^tf. gjf¥ittj| tti 
fuller dietaii stffifidr facts. One Mbultarity Is fbat it mMlicei 
tHe Motaatlittedaft element vrith tao Hiadik 

Laos Folk Lore of Farther India 

Illustrated, crown 8vo, cloth, 28. 6d. net . 

KATmotBTi MSfOLB run»K 

It is a gAod sigB l^heti niissioiiaales alwidj the faUes^ as #ell 
as the trafl ftio ns and eustonis of the peoples for whom they worl^ 
because it means that tfacor are getting olaser to them, and 
learning bettter how to sympathise wita and influence tnein. 
The Hill tribes of Farther India and Northern Slam, Uielading 
the hnOA, are p6e«liarly interesting. 

nrtoA, BxmMA, mw 

Kenneth 8. Macdonald, H.A., 0.1)., stissionary 

of tlie Free C^Iiuroh of Scotland, Calcutta 

Large erown 8vo, cloth, .with Portrait, 58. net 

iAMHB M. MAGPHAIL, M.A., M.D.<01fl8 ) 

** At the time of his death in 1908 there was no man in 
Caloatta mcire famiHarly known to Ms citizens, or held in higher 
esteein hf the^ members of all rsksed and creeds, than Dr K. S. 
Macdonald. the veteran missionary of the Free Church of Scot- 
land. . . 4 Admirable record of a full and valuable life.*'— I%e 
Statesman^ Calcutta. 

Men of Might in Indian Hisidonis 

tUnstrated, Ist^ oi^wn 8vo, cloth, 6b. H£IiEN H. HOLOOMBr 
C^ey^ Mttrtm IHifl» Scudd^, are familbir names, but not 
less valuable to the student of missious are t&tise of Zi&gbhM± 
Bohwartf^ Rhe»k»,- Leewenthai, Kelhwg, and othcKn. lU trcttn 
this is "more than a series of biographies, it is a sort of jnersoitftl 
history, covering the eiitlr6 develoinfient of missions m Itfdla.. 
from the work of Ziegenbalg to the death of Samuel H. KeUogg. 
— JV.y. Observer. 

A Life for God in India : Mrs jensie FRUer 

mustrated, ct0Wn 8vo, oloth, 2s. ML. net. HEtSiT S. DlTfift' 

These memorials of a devoted worker of the Christian and 
Missionary Alliance^, and the Methodist Episcopal work in Akola 
and Bombay, by the author of the life of Pandita Ramabai, grives 
one a glimpse m practical mission ^ork such as could scarcely be 
secured in any other way. 

- - ■ I • '- 

Modem India Illnstrated, defny dvo, cloth, 78. 6d. net 

Egypt, Burma, and British Malaysia 

llmetrated, demy 8vo^ dloth, 7s. 6d. net. 


l*wo books of travel and genlirfti description t>y a trained 
Journalist. BiUih d fhan sees mtph that escapes the eye of the 
ordinary traveller, and the skulea expression fastens scenes and 
etents m the mhid as otno^ acCdiitits do not. Mr Ctirito is a^ 
different from many travellers in that he sees the vsJiio of mis- 
sienary w«rk, and is in hearty oeeord with tt0 pttrposo. 

»^— ^— — n— — — — — — — — —— — — ^i^iM^fi- Am 

In the Tiger Jnngle illustrated, orown 8v»» ^etfa^ 8b^ 00. 
Itt the OobtBi^i D6n illustrated, crown Svo, cloth, Ss. ed. 

Jiabi dIfAMttKttUTly, Itt., i>.d. 

^wo books of missionary stories unsurpassed for vivid por- 
trayal, intense interest, spiritual power, in all missionary Ifter- 
atiire. Not onl^ ate tne^ good stories from the literary point of 
vie^, but thet give a conception of missionary work, its ntethods, 
its opportunities, its successes, of great power. 


The Little Green Gk>d 

Cloth, 28. 6d. net Mm CAaOLINE ATWATEB MASON 

A keen, convincing satire on the growth of such fads as 
Hinduism, under the guise of i^Jiilosophy in America. In story 
form it gives the experience of a scholarly missionary among 
people who, " under the guise of plausible teaching, introduce as 
an acceptable faith the unspeakable degradations of Hinduism." 
—Chrigtian Century, 

The Child of the Ganges 

Illustrated, crown 8vo, cloth, Ss. 6d. net 

Prot B. N. BARRETT. D.D. 

A Tale of the Judson Mission in which the life of the Judsons 
is interwoven with a story of " Seekers after God." 

The Great Religions of India 

Large crown 8vo, with Portrait and Map, cloth, 56. net 


This volume, by one of the most profound scholars Scotland 
has had in her missionarjr force, has never been surpassed, for 
clear, thorough presentation, and it is uniforralv recogrnised on 
every hand as authoritative, and indispensable £o the scholar o/t 

Among the Bnrmans 

Illustrated, large crown 8vo, cloth, 4b. net 


A familiar picture of life, customs, religion, etc., as found in 
Burma ; written in a fascinating style by a missionary of manv 
years' residence in that land. ** First and only book ooverinar aU 
Burma, which gives a comprehensive account of the land ana its 
people. It tells how the country looks, what Uie newcomer's 
experiences are, and what he has to learn. The history is out- 
lined and the diiTerent races described, with accuracy, liveliness 
and humor." 

Soo Thah 

Illustrated, crown 8vo, doth, 3s. 6d. net 


The story of the making of the Karen Nation. In his Intro- 
duction, Dr. H. G. Mabie, speaks of the Karens as '* a spectacle to 
the world, to angels and to men, the promise and the prophecy of 
an ultimate transformed humanity.' In the form of a story the 
" history of a down-trodden and despised race which became a 
nation of vediant soldiers is told, with many romantic incidents." 


With the Tibetans in Tent and Temple 

Illustrated, large crowu 8vo, cloth, 6b. SUSIE C. RIJNHABT 

Perhaps no countiy has witnessed more tragedy in the efforts 
to enter it than Tibet. At times it has occasioned the wonder 
whether, after all, it was worth while. No one. however, can 
read this '* narrative of events of a journey into the Closed 
Land," with its intensely pathetic, though never morbid story, 
without a sympathv for the wife "lost and alone," as for those 
for whose sake life itself was not counted dear. 


America and China 

Crown 8vo, cloth, 38. 6d. net ARTHUR H. SMITH. DJX 

Dr Smith is one of America's ablest representatives at 
foreign courts. He is not so accredited by the government of 
this country, but rather chooses to be known as a missioneuy to 
China. In this capacity he has learned much of China which in 
another relation migh{ be denied him. Being a statesman by 
instinct and genius, ne has taken a broad survey of conditions 
and opportunities, and here forcibly presents his criticisms of 
America's strength and weakness abroad, especially in China. 

China in Convulsion : S^iM^^ 

Illustrated, Maps, Charts, 2 vols, demy 8vo, cloth, 21s. 


No one can understand the Awakening of China, who does 
not also understand the convulsion which preceded it. That has 
been described by none so accurately, vividly, and prophetically 
as by Dr Smith. He foretold its coming, shared in its terrors, 
watched its results. 

New Forces in Old China 

Hlustrated, large crown 8vo, cloth, 58. net. 


An analysis of the commercial, economic, political and 
religious forces that are working to produce the new China. 
The Boston TranscHpt calls it '* eminently practical," and The 
Outlook says that " the information conveyed is as precise and 
exact as possible, but conveved in so entertaining a way that 
even the casual observer wiU be attracted, appeaung at onoe to 
the student and the man in the street." 

A Oycld of Oiithay : cfhiha, vofth eota Sbuth 

IIhist.rated, 78. 6d. W. A. P. HARTIN, D.D.. UID. 

China that ioa«— parent of China that is; both described 
with the clear knowfedge, facile pen, and correct li^rspectlve 
of the roan whose long experience in missionarr. educational 
and Kovernmental worx, entiUe him to speak with authority as 
to history, general charaoteristios and poaedbilitite, especlalljr 
under the impulse of the n&W tetdnn moveroentr 

Ohina's Only Hope 

TOxiOtf^UA, clotfi, & 60. VICSROY CSJJS& CfifB fVttQ 

When written this was an appeaL It has become recognised 
as a prophecy. It laid the fouA&lKfa for the present reform. 

TB6 oenqnfisf of zns orcsa m com, 

Chart and Illustrations, cloth, Ss. neti JAOOH WF^MBMBL 

The contents of this book were first delivered as lectures to 
tlM Mudento at Golgrate itM Rochester UMversitleB. Mr ^^ioher 
luAS tiie true instinct of the news, bringer. Hehas Uyed in South 
Gmn'ft lofig 6nOiigh to khow it thofoo^hly. He is ol^tingumed 
by 6bfHth6n sense in his judgments, matde p^Jatable b^ a fr^ 
lit6rafy style. 

Ifhe Edaoattcmal Gcmqnesit ot the Ftt Basrl 

Illustrated, olotb/ erewn 8ve, Ss. 6d. net. 


History is moving so rapidly in China^ and Japan that it is 
easy to lose ^6 .te^rftectlttfrwithout wliloh an jiidgodeni la 
liable to be at f£ltilt. * An authoritative account of educational 

{>rogress in lapan and a d^lgfatfttllr HynlpaAhetie sttid^ci OMftVs 
iteratL in the Ught ol the new education,*' is as essential to the 
g6ti&Md f^der fld to tB6 sdholar. 

mustibted, Affitif Svo,' e9o4^, 7^. 6d. MAfBtft H. MttM, P.J). 

^**Not only one of th e ablest analyses and bortr&yal6^ tltd 
OliHieBo eharaoter,- Ifcrt; cm thcr whOto, one of the most trathful 
and judiciaL"— 7^ Nation, *' Highly entertaining, showingun- 
common shrewdness, with k^Psn anallni of e ltt tfrteWr.*'-^OII?«y 
York Times. Under existing conditions in China it becomes 

Village iiife ia China 

Illitetraf#ft, AtmS drer. cIoOt, 78. dd. ABYH91( H. fifMfm, D.^. 
A^ ft Study in Sdci6lo^ this bc>ok, && the ;Sf.iSL tithes &d.1ts, la 
"tf tinique cOTitrlbTitfori to literature./. As a study in Chmese 
life, it is "afi incotffpaitttble Iriafiraasine o^ infonhatien " {New T6m 
Sfttrtf. Aflf & 06dk tm mlMdh^, it givcis the '* fruits of twenty-flve 
years of ripe experience."— Ouc^ooAe. 

Mission Problems wi Xissioa XelbOdlK |n 
South China 

Illi]yB|;ra4;ed, largjs crown 8vo, cloth, 6s. 


"A luminous view of the miaiBionarsr work, its difflcujtics apd 
failure^ Its suoce^sses and adYQ.n,cinsi: ^^rowcb" {Tn.e Ovtloolfl, 
*'A valtiable contribution to the philosophy of misslops" iC,£! 
Worm) by an English Baptist missionary. 

EftSt of the Barrier : Manchuria in Miniature 

Illustrated, 9b. 6d. E97, J. MIXJpER OIL^ffA^ 

The mission of the Scotch United (now United-Free) Presby- 
terians in Manchuria is one of the best illastratloiis of effective 
mission work in any land. This book, by one of the missionaries. 
bFingB before us very rividly the country and its people, as well 
as its missions. 

MUsipB Metho4ji in JKanetmrJia 

JUustri^t^ oroiyn 8yo, clpt^h, Ss, «4, ^09Pf BOSfi n.D. 

Dr Roes, the senior missionary in U^ mmt interoating 
field, eives here the result of long years of experience, illustrat- 
ing the preUems fa.eed, the results aebieved, espeeiaUy as 
emphasized by the Boxer troubles. All together constitute, in 
the opinion of Bofmi JB!* Spefir, ** t)^e n^aBt interesting develpp- 
ment of modem missions." 

I. M. I ." Jlf^U .^U^^.l. I ....1 -.III 

A VfUi^ifftx in Chijia 

Large cpown 8vo» with numerous Illustrations, ^nd in artistic 
binding, oe. net. 

w. E. so<mrit.L 

Translator of t^e Wenofaow New Testament { author oc ^ The 
Student's Pocket Diptioncury " ;' compiler of jkhj^ Wenofaow 
Romanified System, etc. 

" Herein are recounted BOmfi ot tbe expe)iei^G€i§ ^^t yfjli^f and 
methods followed during nearly a quarter of a century s work 
amongst the fihinewe, a work that has been rewarded by nearly 
ten thousand conversions and an increasing confidence in the 
universal advent of the Kingdom of Qod."— /^rom the Prefojce, 

Demon Possession and Allied Themes 

Index, Appendioes, etc., cloth, 5r. net. ^ 

JP^ -U ^^71178, D.D. 

*> Ctaue of tbe best conjbribuittons to the natural history of the 
Bubj^et " (iVeti) Forft ifolifiv^ by one who for forty jrears was a 
misi^nary ji} OlMoa, a c«Re£al observer, an impartial witness 
** A significant and impressive volume." 


Ohinese Mother Goose Rhymes 

UluBtrated, decorated boards, is, net. 


Profeasor Headland ban done more tban any one else to 
bring us into sympathy with Chinese TAte by showing us how 
like our own it is in those features of child life and folk lore, 
which, after all, are the true test The make-up is as peculiar 
and attractive as its materiaL 

Chinese Boy and Oirl 

Illustrated, decorated boards, 4s. net 


Following on the Chinese Mother GkMise, this gives even 
closer glimpses of child life among the Celestials (how the name 
has dropp^ out!). The Boston Transcript B&yfi, "The combin- 
ation of the two books makes the most complete, picturesque 
and unioue presentation of child life that has api»eared in any 
countiy. An exceptionally good gift book. 

Life of John Livingstone Nevius 

lUuRtrated, demy 8vo, cloth, 7s. 6d. net 


A record of forty years of service in China by the veteran 
wife of a successful missionary. The Shantung field may be 
called "The Holy Land of the Chinese,** and as The Observer 
says, the story of this life ** is practically the history of miBsions 
in China." Dr Nevius wsus not only a pioneer in time but in 
methods and not merely Presbyterian but other missions have 
reaped results from the experience of his life. 

Two Heroes of Cathay 

Illastrated, crown 8vo, cloth, 3s. 6d. net 


Autobiography and sketch of two Chinese young men, one 
of whom carried, at rlRk of his life, the ncMrs of the Shansi 
massacres to Tientsin, and the other shiu^d tiie perils of the Tai, 
Ku missionaries. Both came to this country and were for a 
time held by the authorities at San Francisco. 



The Siege in Pekin Chlna against the Woria. 
Crown 8vo, cloth extra, with Portrait of the author. 38. 64. 

By an Eye-witnens, 

W. A. P. MARTIN, D.D., L.L.D. 

President of the Chinese Imperial University, author of **A 
Cycle of Cathay.** 

ITie Daily Express says : '* Sets forth very plainly and 
convincingly the case of China against the world.'* 

Memorial of Horace Tracy Pitkin 

Portrait, crown 8vo, 3s. 6d. net ROBERT E. SPEBR 

" More than a biography, it forms an inspiring and impressive 
call to unselfish manhood.' ~2%e Outlook. 

The Tragedy of Paotingfli 

Illustrated, demy 8vo, cloth, 10s. net ISAAC C XETLER 

Record of the China Inland, Congregational and Presbyterian 
Martyrs in that city. 

Fire and Sword in Shansi : The story of the Mas- 
sacre of Foreigners and Chinese Christians. 

Illustrated, large crown 8vo. New and Cheaper Edition, with 
additional dbapter. Cloth, 28. 6d. net 

for over twenty years a Medical Missionary in China. ^'*^ ^**^** 
M ^^^^'^x^'^^^^^^^^O'y No<» ^y Alexander MacLaren, D.D., 

Dr Edwards was in England at the time of the Boxer 
^bles, and the missionary who was filling his place lost his 

A Chinese Quaker An unfictiuous Novel. 

Illustrated, crown 8vo, cloth, 68. 


f K^ *"''**?-*™°A*S*°?5C?' * 9J^n©»B boy. It treats particularly on 
the question of the Chinese in California and the woman slavery 
on our Pacific Coast"— Herald and Presbyter, ' 


Evolution of the Japanese : social and psyohic 

Demy 8vo, cloth, 7& td. net. S2DNB7 L. OUXJCK. D.D. 

That a solid, hook of t)iis type shoald pass through four 
editions Is suiflcient witness to lis interest, as well as its value. 
The last edition hrinsp the author's comments up to date and 
keeps it at t)ifi hefhdofjpoks on these most interesting people. As 
The Interior says : 'TEverything of interest from the stap.dpoijit 
of a statesman, a moralist or a missionary, Mr Guiick passes in 

The White Peril in the Far East 

Crown 8vo, cloth, 9s. 6d. net. BIDJflSf L. QiULlCJ^ 0J>. 

A study of the ethical and international significance of the 
RttSQp-Japani^se war, this volume^ gives tjtxe pj)ver^e side of the 
white man's "yellow peril*' and shows how much greater is the 
yellow n»J>'s " whi|<e peril. " Np better proof pf the real quality 
andvalueof the tidok could be tfk&n the comments on it oy the 
secular as well as the religious press. 

- . , pi-ii 

A Maker of the New Orient: Samnel Robhlns Brown 
niustraJted, crown 8vo, oloth, Ss. 9d. net. 

wnxiAM SLUOT oRonns, D.D. 

When Marquis Ito said " Japan's progress and development 
are largely due to the influence of missionaries exerted in right 
directions when Japan was flr^t studyina ^he outw woria" 
(•'Missionary and His Critics"), he unquestionably had in hiihd 
the remarkable corapaaF of naen who, in 18», commenced 
iniBstoaary work in the Empire. Of these. Dr. S. R. Brown was 
one, and his life should be i»ad hy every one who wishes to 
understand that "iJifluence." 

inn . .11 jiiimuji I II .1.1. 11 ■ I II ' u ' -ii*. I . i .""J ' ' 
VerhMdCk of JapMl : a citizen of No country 
B^nstrftt^; l^tr)^ crown 8vo, clotti, e^ 

wmJAM BLLier osiffis, d.p 

Dr Verbeck was one of the unique fijers/e? JS H»i8sionary 
annals. Born in Holland, he came to the United States, applied 
for naturalisation papera, but before they could be completed he 
sailed lor Japan as a missionary. There he found himSelf with- 
out any civH status, but so highly was he esteemed by the 
Japanese Government for his sei-vices, in connection with 
S. R. Brown, J. C. Hepburn a^d others, that a si^ecial pasFjport 
was granted \iim, which, while it did not make him a Japanese 
citizen- as indeed was at th^t time impossible -gave him Ail pro- 
tection and^endorsement ^ npcitbd. 





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